Q1. (a) ‘Statistics is the backbone of decision-making’. Comment. Ans.(a) Due to advanced communication network, rapid changes in consumer behavior, varied expectations of variety of consumers and new market openings, modern managers have a difficult task of making quick and appropriate decisions. Therefore, there is a need for them to depend more upon quantitative techniques like mathematical models, statistics, operations research and econometrics. Decision making is a key part of our day-to-day life. Even when we wish to purchase a television, we like to know the price, quality, durability, and maintainability of various brands and models before buying one. As you can see, in this scenario we are collecting data and making an optimum decision. In other words, we are using Statistics. Again, suppose a company wishes to introduce a new product, it has to collect data on market potential, consumer likings, availability of raw materials, feasibility of producing the product. Hence, data collection is the back-bone of any decision making process. Many organizations find themselves data-rich but poor in drawing information from it. Therefore, it is important to develop the ability to extract meaningful information from raw data to make better decisions. Statistics play an important role in this aspect. Statistics is broadly divided into two main categories. Below Figure illustrates the two categories. The two categories of Statistics are descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. •Descriptive Statistics: Descriptive statistics is used to present the general description of data which is summarized quantitatively. This is mostly useful in clinical research, when communicating the results of experiments. •Inferential Statistics: Inferential statistics is used to make valid inferences from the data which are helpful in effective decision making for managers or professionals. Statistical methods such as estimation, prediction and hypothesis testing belong to inferential statistics. The researchers make deductions or conclusions from the collected data samples regarding the characteristics of large population from which the samples are taken. So, we can say ‘Statistics is the backbone of decision-making’.

Q1.(b) ‘Statistics is as good as the user’. Comment.

Ans. Sta

Statistics is used for various purposes. It is used to

simplify mass data and to make comparisons easier. It is also used to bring out trends and tendencies in the data as well as the hidden relations between variables. All this helps to make decision making much easier. Let us look at each function of Statistics in detail. 1. Statistics simplifies mass data

The use of statistical concepts helps in simplification of complex data. Using statistical concepts, the managers can make decisions more easily. The statistical methods help in reducing the complexity of the data and consequently in the understanding of any huge mass of data. 2. Statistics makes comparison easier

Without using statistical methods and concepts, collection of data and comparison cannot be done easily. Statistics helps us to compare data collected from different sources. Grand totals, measures of central tendency, measures of dispersion, graphs and diagrams, coefficient of correlation all provide ample scopes for comparison. 3. Statistics brings out trends and tendencies in the data

After data is collected, it is easy to analyse the trend and tendencies in the data by using the various concepts of Statistics. 4. Statistics brings out the hidden relations between variables Statistical analysis helps in drawing inferences on data. Statistical analysis brings out the hidden relations between variables. 5. Decision making power becomes easier

With the proper application of Statistics and statistical software packages on the collected data, managers can take effective decisions, which can increase the profits in a business. Seeing all these functionality we can say ‘Statistics is as...

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