statistics and business data analysis

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STATISTICS "FOR
BUSINESS AND
ECONOMICS ~
SECOND EDITION

SWEENEY WILLIAMS

ANDERSON

FREEMAN
~...
t

SHOESMITH

SOUTH-WESTERN
(ENGAGE Learning'

Australia· Brazil· Japan· Korea· Mexico· Singapore. Spain. United Kingdom. United States

Brief contents

Preface and Acknowledgements xvii
About the Authors xx
Walk-through Tour xxii
Accompanying Website xxiv
Supplements xxv

Data and Statistics

I

2 Descriptive Statistics: Tabular and Graphical Presentations

3 Descriptive Statistics: Numerical Measures

4 Introduction to Probability

21

67

117

5 Discrete Probability Distributions 153

6 Continuous Probability Distributions

187

7 Sampling and Sampling Distributions 219

8 Interval Estimation
9 Hypothesis Tests

251

283

10 Statistical Inference about Means and Proportions with Two

Populations

335

I I Inferences about Population Variances

373

12 Tests of Goodness of Fit and Independence 399
13 Analysis of Variance and Experimental Design 429
14 Simple linear Regression 489

15 Multiple Regression 555
16 Regression Analysis: Model Building 613
17 Index Numbers 659
18 Forecasting 683

ix

,

BRIEF CONTENTS

19 Non-parametric Methods

727

20 Statistical Methods for Quality Control
21 Decision Analysis

799

22 Sample Surveys (on CD)
Appendix A References and Bibliography 835
Appendix B Tables 837
Appendix C Summation Notation 867
Appendix D Answers to Even-numbered Exercises 870
Glossary 9 I I
Index 920

767

Contents
Preface and Acknowledgments xvii
About the Authors xx
Walk-through Tour xxii
Accompanying Website xxiv
Supplements xxv

J Descriptive Statistics:
Measures 67

Statistics in practice: TV audience measureme~1 69

3.2

1.2

Data sources 8

1.4

Descriptive statistics I2

1.5

Statistical inference 14

1.6

3.3

Data 5

1.3

Computers and statistical analysis 15

Exercises 1-13 I 6
Summary 20
Key terms 20

~~

Measures of variability 76
Exercises 9-1 6 8 I

Statistics in practice: The Economist 3
Applications in business and economics 3

Measures of location 68
Exercises 1-8 75

Data and Statistics

1.1

({7J"

Learning objectives 68

3.1

Learning objectives 2

Num.l~rical

Measures of distributional shape, relative location,
and detecting outliers 82
Exercises 17-24 86

3.4

Exploratory data analysis 88
Exercises 25-31 89

3.5

Measures of association between two variables 91
Exercises 32-35 97

3.6

The weighted mean and working with grouped
data 99
Exercises 36-39 102

2 Descriptive Statistics: Tabular and
Graphical Presentations 21

Summary 104
Key tenms I04
Key formulae 105
Case problem: Company. profiles 106

Learning objectives 22

Software Section for Chapter 3 I08

Statistics in practice: YouGov and Brandlndex 23'

Descriptive statistics using MINITAB 108
Descriptive statistics using EXCEL I I I
Descriptive statistics using PASW I 14

2.1

Summarizing qualitative data 22
Exercises 1-7 26

2.2

Summarizing quantitative data 28
Exercises 8-19 38

2.3

Cross-tabulations and scatter diagrams 40
Exercises 20-25 46

Summary 49
Keytenms 50
Key formulae 50

4 Introduction to Probability
Learning objectives I I 8
Statistics in practice: Combating junk e-mail I 19
4.1

Tabular and graphical presentations using MINITAB 52
Tabular and graphical presentations using EXCEL 54
Tabular and graphical presentations using PASW 64

Experiments, counting rules and assigning
probabilities I 19
Exercises I-I I 127

Case problem: In The Mode Fashion Stores 50
Software Section for Chapter 2 52

117

4.2

Events and their probabilities 129

4.3

Some basic relationships of probability 132

Exercises I2-17 I 30

Exercises 18-20 136

xi

CONTENTS

4.4

Conditional probability 137

6.2

Exercises 21-26 142

4.5

Bayes' theorem 143

Normal probability...
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