The affect on dynamic and static stretching on basketball specific fitness tests
Basketball is, and requires a high-intensity, and non-continuous sprints of different durations, rapid accelerations, jumping, and agility ( Sallet, Perrier, Ferret, Vitelli, Baveral, 2005). Basketball players usually perform different stretches to get ready for trainings or matches, and the majority of coaches believe that pre-exercise stretching helps prevent injuries, that might occur during those sessions while increasing overall performance. (Andrjeic, Tosic, Knezevic, 2012). The acceptance for stretching comes from the increase in flexibility following the stretching, and thus belief in decreasing muscle soreness and enhancing performance through it ( Herbert and Gabriel, 2002). Traditionally, a classical warm-up includes a short duration of aerobic exercise, followed by series of stretching routines, and is finished off by sport specific movements (Safran, 1989).
Basketball is a sport, where a lot of activities specific only to that sport occur, and Boyle (2004), states that, dynamic stretching during warm-ups is to be the most beneficial way of getting the most out of the players because it mimics the sport specific movement patterns through the dynamic warm-up. Dynamic stretching has been described as controlled movements through the active range of motion for each joint (Fletcher, Jones , 2004), and believed to result in the most beneficial for athletes, according to the study. Dynamic stretching can be performed in various ways- slowly or quickly; passively by someone else stretching the athlete, or actively by swinging limbs under their own control ( Castella, 1996). Static stretching has been described as stretching muscles by slowly lengthening it to the point of discomfort and holding that position for a certain amount of time (Anderson, Burke, 1991). Static stretching prior to sporting activities is largely supported by Weijer, Gorniak, and Shamus (2003). Their study found that static stretching should take for 30 seconds on each muscle to improve the range of hamstring flexibility, and that static stretching should take place 15 minutes prior to the competition or training session, as the maximal stretch length occurs just then. Static stretching mostly has support from the 1980s and 1990 literature, as the most beneficial way of optimising athletes performance during pre-game warm-ups. (Shellock and Prentice, 1985; Smith, 1994). Although having a lot of support previously, new studies suggest that static stretching actually decreases performance, and should not be part of the pregame warm-ups. A study conducted by Fletcher and Jones (2004), saw the difference between static and dynamic stretching in rugby players speed performance. The results state that participants experienced a decrease in speed performance while undergoing static stretching, as to an increase in speed among the same participants undergoing the exact same testing but doing a dynamic stretch instead. However, the study also reported that not all the subjects followed that trend, and that some subjects reported better times while doing a static stretching instead of a dynamic one. A study by Knudson (2000), states that, further research is needed on the correlation between static stretching and vertical jump, as the results came back inconclusive. He also suggests that the actual outcome of a vertical jump is the results of proper execution, and that stretching has no affect on it. Although both theories on static stretching being beneficial or harmful have support, a suggestion by Kovacs ( 2006 ), indicates that the actual decrease in performance after static stretching may occur because of the stretching type and mode of activity that follows the completion of the routine. The actual outcome of static stretching on performance may actually depend on the speed of movement required by the activity, and thus may...
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