Sex crimes are one of the most serious problems in the United States today. The legal system is casual when it comes to punishing sex criminals with insufficiently short prison sentences that are further reduced by the option of parole. While sexual offenders comprise a sizable portion of U.S. prison inmates, they evoke an even greater portion of public concern, (Boccaccini, Murrie, Caperton, &ump; Hawes, 2009). Most sex offenders are released back into society after serving as little as one- fourth of their prison sentence. Recidivism is extremely high among sexual predators; 75% are convicted more than once for sexually abusing young people, (Boccaccini, Murrie, Caperton, &ump; Hawes, 2009). The courts rely on forensic psychologist to determine the possibility of recidivism of a sex offender. Forensic psychologist must then rely on the assessment and test of those individuals. It is of the utmost importance that forensic psychologists have valid and reliably assessment and testing measures in order to determine, the probability of recidivism among sex offenders. The psychological constructs, such as cognitive and emotional functioning, of these individuals, must be determined by psychometrics. One of the tools used by most forensic psychologist today is the STATIC- 99; within the construct of this paper STATIC- 99 will be examined. To conclude if the STATIC- 99 is a reliable and valid form of forensic testing to establish the recidivism rate among sex offenders. Not only will the categorizing of probability be elucidated but also the multiculturalism of this form of testing. To see if STATIC-99 will cross race, culture, and ethnicity bridges with used to determine recidivism.
Race, Ethnicity and Culture
There is considerable controversy and overlap in terms used to imply race, culture, and ethnicity (Helms &ump; Talleyrand, 1997, Phinney, 1996). For the sake of this researcher paper, definitions for race, ethnicity, and culture will be examined. During the assessment and testing of individuals it is important to consider not only pathology but also their gender, race, ethnicity, and culture. This is significant since their perception and reaction to an assessment could and most likely will be predisposed by what they already know due to what they have experienced according to race, ethnicity, and culture. Culture is the belief systems and value orientations that influence customs, norms, practices, and social institutions, including psychological processes such as language, care taking practices, media, educational systems and organizations (Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, &ump; Nisbett, 1998). Accepted in this definition is the acknowledgement that all individuals are cultural beings and have a cultural, ethnic, and racial heritage. Culture embodies worldview through learned and transmitted beliefs, values, and practices, including religious and spiritual traditions. It also encompasses a way of living informed by the historical, economic, ecological, and political forces on a group. This suggests that culture is fluid and dynamic, and that there are both cultural universal phenomena as well as culturally specific or relative constructs. The biological basis of race has, at times, been the source of fairly heated debates in psychology ( Helms &ump; Talleyrand, 1997; Jensen, 1995; Levin, 1995; Phinney, 1996; Yee, Fairchild, Weizmann, &ump; Wyatt, 1993). Helms and Cook (1999) suggest that race has no consensual definition, and that, in fact, biological racial categories and phenotypic characteristics have more within group variation than between group variation. Within this paper, the definition of race is considered to be socially constructed, rather than biologically determined. Race, then, is the category to which others assign individuals on the basis of physical characteristics, such as skin color or hair type, and the generalizations and stereotypes made as a result. Thus, “people are treated or studied as...
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