Final examination in Economics 1
Submitted to :
Mr. Ceferino Manigos
“Tuwid na Daan” or the Straight Path is a phrase repeatedly mentioned by President Benigno S. Aquino III to pertain to his governance direction for the country. Essential to this concept of “Tuwid na Daan” is the battle cry “Kung Walang Corrupt, Walang Mahirap.” The administration believes that corruption is the root cause of the country’s woes, and eliminating corruption will necessarily lead to renewed investor confidence, eventual growth and development, poverty reduction, and attainment of peace. The straight path, however, does not only pertain to the President’s anti-corruption campaign. It also encompasses a way of doing things right, where the process is participatory; the programs are holistic; growth is sustained; the peace policy is comprehensive; and development is sustainable. Through the living examples of our leaders, led by the President, this re-awakened sense of right and wrong continues to be translated to economic value. Before going to the main purpose of this report which is to inform the reader on the present state of the Philippine Agrarian Reform Program for the year 2011, let’s tackle first the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program.
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform- Birth, Struggle & Future The Philippine comprehensive agrarian reform program (CARP) was envisioned shortly after the Filipino liberation from martial rule in 1986. It was designed to free the majority of the Filipino poor from the bondage of the soil by making them owners of the land they till. It also aims to grant economic-size land to the landless. Comprehensive enough, it covers farmers’ education, skills training and strong farmers' organization, application of improved technology, and support by the government.
The 1987 Philippine Constitution provides in Article 14, Sec. 4.that:
The State shall, by law, undertake an agrarian reform program founded on the right of farmers and regular farm workers, who are landless, to own directly or collectively the lands they till or, in the case of other farm workers, to receive a just share of the fruits thereof. To this end, the State shall encourage and undertake the just distribution of all agricultural lands, subject to such priorities and reasonable retention limits as the congress may prescribe, taking into account ecological, developmental, or equity considerations, and subject to the payment of just compensation. In determining retention limits the State, shall respect the right of small landowners, The State shall further provide incentives for voluntary land-sharing.
The overriding idea under the Philippine constitution is the preservation of the concept of an “economic family-size farm” as embodied in the past land reform laws. ( the law prescribes 3 hectares to be a family size farm enough to sustain a family) It is also important to note that ownership by beneficiaries can be individually or collectively. Even in collective ownership however, the constitutional mandate is to preserve the control of the tiller over the land a farmer tills. This is so because, agrarian reform is essentially a land-to-the-tiller program; it is based on the right of farmers and regular farm workers to own the lands they till. (pp. 1200-1201 The 1987Constitution of the Philippines, A Commentary; 2003 Edition by Rev. Fr. Joaquin G. Bernas, S.J.)
In the pursuit of the above constitutional provision, the COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM LAW (CARL), R.A. 6657 was signed into law by President Corazon Aquino on June 9, 1988.The soul of CARL, R.A. 6657 is embodied in Section 2 which is reproduced below.
SECTION 2. Declaration of Principles and Policies. - It is the policy of the State to pursue a Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Program (CARP). The welfare of the landless farmers and farm...