State Bereaucracy

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Background
Bureaucracy is a method of organizing people and work that is based on the principles of hierarchical authority, job specialization, and formalized rules. As a form of organization, bureaucracy is the most efficient means of getting people to work together on tasks of great magnitude and complexity (Patterson, 2003). At present bureaucrats are known in different names like permanent executive, non- political executive, civil servants, public servants, officialdom, departmental government etc. All state bureaucracies are someway organized based on a definite purpose or functions. This is achieve through the construction of departments, ministries and agencies charged with responsibility for particular policy areas like education, defense, agriculture etc. The number of such departments and agencies varies over time and from state to state. In the bureaucratic system, the works of the department or organization are divided among the employees in such a way that each employee has only a certain part of the work to perform. In this way, the employee repeatedly performs certain job and becomes efficient at it. In every bureaucracy, there is a hierarchy or chain of command, where those at higher levels supervise officials at lower levels. The management of the organization is based upon written documents or files. Since nothing concerning the office is private, every transaction, decision, and order is recorded which help in efficient decision making in future. Management follows a set of rules, which are made known to all employees of the organization. Rules are equally applicable to everyone and they prevent any type of arbitrariness. Salaries are fixed for employees and there is a provision for pension, Provident Fund to take care of the employee when he retires from service. The officials are expected to carry out their duties without allowing themselves to be influenced by their personal likes and dislikes. The employee must treat all clients equally. Bureaucracy represents a rational form of organisation. Decisions are taken on strict evidence and avoid any type of irrationality. Bureaucracy serves all political parties in power without being biased. It has only committed to work and duty and not to any Party ideology (Dasgupta, 2011 ) The main function of bureaucracy in any part of the world is to implement the policies of the government with full commitment and devotion. The basic idea behind the formation of bureaucratic structures was to provide 'permanent' government in the sense that the bureaucrats kept running the system of the government for the larger benefit of people as they are civil servants. Political executive in the form of politicians could come and go but the bureaucrats stayed on to look after the working of the governments. Therefore, their job has never been formulation of policy. They do help political leadership in policymaking but never make policies themselves. Since bureaucrats are not elected representatives, therefore, they cannot be expected to know the public aspirations and sentiments. Thus if they happen to perform the policy-making function, they are very likely to fail as they are not programmed and trained for it. Bhutanese state bureaucracy system emerged since Zhabdrug Ngawang Namgyel came to Bhutan in 1616 AD and unified the Kingdom of Bhutan, which was earlier ruled by the powerful Druk Desis. He adopted dual system (Chhoesi Lugnyi) of government and this system is still being carried out in Bhutan today in a modified way where Je khenpo and King become the head of the religious and head of the state respectively. In 1907, Ugyen Wangchuk became the first hereditary king of Bhutan, since then public service delivery has improved where many citizens were exempted from paying tax of various forms. And this form of government continued during the reign of second king and with the initiation of decentralization during the reign of third king the power of the central government...
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