State and Federal Prison Systems
Prison is a term describing the facilities used to incarcerate convicted individuals and penitentiary describes the type of building. The debate to inaugurate penitentiaries instead of prisons began in the eighteenth century in England with the idea to replace corporal punishment with imprisonment with the prospects of reforming the mind and body. These transformations of the penitentiaries had a positive result throughout the world and the rest of Europe (Jackson, 1997).
The theory started in 1787 when a group of well-known Philadelphians expressed their concerns of the conditions of the American and European prisons. Dr. Benjamin Rush, Father of American Psychiatry, proposed the idea to build a true penitentiary, designed to create genuine regret and penitence, which took 30 years to convince the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania to start building (U.S. History, 2010). In 1822 John Haviland, British architect, designs and manages the construction of the Eastern State Penitentiary, which incorporated the principles of Quaker information.
The purpose of the penitentiary is aid in both spiritual and not religious, and to maintain humane punishment and refrain from the physical punishment that has occurred in the Western societies. Provide a clean and healthy institution and environment to prevent contamination of the body, mind, and spirit (Foster, 2006). Furthermore, the inmates in custody were separated from each other, total isolation with all the required amenities such as a working toilet, running water, and central heat. The only possession the inmates are to have is a Bible to learn the word of God and participate in honest hard work,...