Education and Propaganda were tools used by Stalin to maintain and consolidate his power in Russia. The exact year as to when Stalin was in power is controversial. For the purpose of this paper, Stalin will be recognized as in power of Russia in 1929, the year when most of his oppositions were defeat, especially Trosky.
Though Stalin always addressed himself as the follower of Lenin, and all what he is doing is a continuation of Lenin. However, he prove himself wrong when he reversed the trends of education initiated by the Boshelviks after 1917. When Lenin and the Bosheviks were in power, young people were encouraged to learn trades and engage in activities that were of practical value. However, Stalin went on a different approach: he wanted his people to be literate. Stalin started to build up his own system of education, some of the terms include:
•10 years of compulsory schooling for all children
•Core curriculum include: reading , writing, math, science , history , geography, Russian, Marxist theory •State prescribed text books to be used
•Fees to be charged for the last three years of non compulsory secondary His educational plan did worked and as a result of these education policies: Between 1929 and 1940, the number of children attending school rose from 12 million to 35 million and literacy rate for the population over age of nine increased from 51% to 88%. However, as much as Stalin want to promote communism, the introduction of fees for the last there years of schooling may appear to challenge the notion of an egalitarian education system. The party had the right to nominate those who were to receive the higher grade training that would give them access to university, and in this case, party members’ children would have the first claim on the best places. Between 1928 and 32 a third of all undergraduates were party nominee. Propaganda
In contrast the Communist Party controlled all the main forms of information, newspapers cinema and radio. Roy Medvedev, a soviet historian, who lived through Stalinism, later explained: “Stalin did not rely on terror alone, but also on other support of the majority of the people; effectively deceived by cunning propaganda, they gave Stalin credit for the successes of others and even for achievements that were in fact totally fictitious” Stalin’s wiseom and brilliance were extolled daily in Pravda. Children at school learned from their earliest moments to venerate Stalin as the provider of all good things. “no text books in any subject that did not praise the virtues of stalin.”lynch A particularly usefull instrument for the spread of Stalinist propaganda was Komsomol, a youth movement which had begun in Lenin’s time, Stalin continued it . It was an program open to age 14-28 basically assisting the party for various events like stalin’s birthday which in 1929 named as the greatest celebration in the soviet calendar.
Stahanovite movement: The Stakhanovite movement began in August 1936. It was officially announced that Alexei Stakhanov single handedly “harvested over 100 tons of coal in one five-hour shift, more than 14 times his required quota.” It was a false claim by the party to encourage peasants and workers to work harder.
The use of propaganda was a tool for Stalin to maintain power since it spreads over all ages of people, the youth, the adults, and the older people; he appears on newspapers; almost all places had a picture of him hanging on the wall; his birthday became a national celebration day; books contain only words that praise how Stalin was good for Russia. Through propaganda, Stalin was able to establish a dominant figure in the heart of Russians, rather they dislike him or not, his presence was everywhere. In comparison, education similarily helped stalin to maintain power. Since children of party domineer can gets the first priority,...