Stages of Childhood

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1.1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years to include: * Physical development
* Communication and intellectual development
* Social, emotional and behavioral development.

Physical development.
0-3 years.
This is a period of fast physical development. When first born, babies have very little control over their bodies. Their movements are dependent on a series of reflexes (e.g sucking, grasping) which they need in order to survive. They will, however, in their first year gradually start to learn to have more control over their bodies so that by 12 months, most babies will have developed a degree of mobility such as crawling or rolling. In their second year, babies will continue to grow and develop quickly and it is at this stage that most children will start to walk. Their ability to control their movements means that they are able to start to use their hands for pointing, holding small objects and starting to dress and feed themselves. They will also be able to play with a ball and will enjoy climbing, for example, on stairs or furniture. In their third year, children will start to have more control over pencils and crayons and will enjoy looking at and turning pages in books. They should be able to use cups and feed themselves. They will be starting to walk and run with more confidence, and will be exploring using toys such as tricycles.

3-7 years.
At this stage, children will be able to carry out more coordinated movements and will be growing in confidence as a result. They will be refining the skills developed so far and will have more control over fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They will also become more confident in activities such as running, hopping, kicking a ball and using larger equipment.

7-12 years.
Children will continue to grow and develop and will now be refining many of their skills. They may start to have hobbies and interests which mean that they are more practiced in some areas, for example sport or dance. They may also be able to make very controlled finer movements such as those required for playing an instrument or sewing. Girls in particular will start to show some of the early signs of puberty from the age of 10 or 11. In boys, puberty usually starts later, when there will be another period of rapid physical growth.

12-16 years.
During adolescence, young people will be growing stronger. Boys will be starting to go through puberty and many girls will have completed the process and have regular periods. As a result, between these ages there can be a great variety in height and strength. At the end of this stage, most boys will be taller than most girls, although this is an average. 16-19 years.

This is the stage at which young people are adults, but although many girls may have reached physical maturity, boys will continue to grow and change until their mid 20s.

Communication and intellectual development.
0-3 years.
From the earliest stages, adults will usually try to communicate with babies even though they are not yet able to understand what is being said. This is because it is important for babies to be stimulated and have an interest shown in them. In cases where babies are neglected and do not spend time with adults, they will find very difficult to learn the skills of effective communication later. At this age, babies will be listening to language from those around them and will enjoy songs and games. Most will start to try to speak at around 12 months, although pronunciation will not be clear and words will usually be used in isolation. Between 1 and 2 years they will start to put words together and their vocabulary will start to increase fairly rapidly so that by 2 years most children will have about 200 words. Between 2 and 3 years, children will start to use negatives and plurals in their speech and although their vocabulary will increase rapidly, they will still make errors in...
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