An organization achieves its objectives only when it has right men in right positions. It is not by chance that some organizations get men of their choice while others do not. A person joins an organization just because of its paying capacity but also for its attitude towards its personnel, its recruitment policy, its training & executive developmental policy, performance evaluation, merit rating, promotion & transfer policy etc.
Staffing is defined as the process involved in identifying, assessing, placing, evaluating and developing individuals at work. The processes involved in it may be grouped under the major heads of: a) Job Analysis, b) Manpower Planning, c) Recruitment and Selection, d) Training, e) Manpower Development and f) Performance Appraisal
Job Analysis: Manager requires information about jobs before recruiting and placing people on it. Job analysis helps in determining the major characteristics and dimensions of a job. Main steps in the process of Job Analysis:
0 Identification and isolation of the component task in a job. 1 Examine how tasks are performed.
2 Examine why tasks are performed as they are.
3 Examine when and why the tasks are performed.
4 Identify the main duties involved, both regular and occasional, and scale the duties according to their difficulty, frequency and importance to the job as a whole. 5 Identify the main areas of responsibility (e.g., responsibility for work assignments, responsibility of the work of other people, responsibility for money, material etc.) 6 Note prevailing working conditions in respect of physical, social and financial aspects of the job.
Physical environment - temperature, noise, humidity, dirt, danger etc.
Social environment - Whether in teams, shifts, isolated work.
Financial conditions - Basic wage, bonus, incentive schemes, fringe benefits etc. 7 Identify the personal demands which a job makes on an individual incumbent.
Physical demands (e.g., muscular energy, travel, hours of work)
Intellectual demands (Degree of intelligence, technical and academic qualifications, problem-
Skills (e.g. any particular psycho-motor, social or diplomatic skills called for).
Experience - know-how of responsibility, control or decision making.
Personality factors - ability to provide leadership, to initiate, to work without close supervision.
It is defined as the process (including forecasting, developing, implementing and controlling) by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people, and the right kind of people, at the right places, at the right time, doing things for which they are economically most useful.
Thus Manpower planning enables an enterprise to discover, at an early date, the critical points where shortage of qualified personnel are most likely to develop or where there is overstaffing and underutilization of their capabilities. It also makes provision for replacement on account of mobility of officers, resignations, retirements and other natural losses. TYPES OF MANPOWER PLANS:
Short-term and long term: Short range plans take care of the immediate requirements and the supply of manpower and are more useful for specific projects. Long-range plans are for next 3-5 years or more. Formal and Informal: A formal plan is one which comes into record in the form of a plan document, management decision, statement, charts, graphs etc. An informal plan exists only in the minds of the managers. It may come out in the shape of ideas and suggestions and sometimes even in action without a formal declaration earlier. Single or multiple choice: The single plan permit little or no deviation from the procedure laid down, while the multiple choice plans provide for a series of decision points with alternatives. The multiple choice plans enable a manager to decide about strategy in accordance with the circumstances as is common, for instance, in the game...
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