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AN INTRODUCTION TO

IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC PETROLOGY

OHN D. WINTER

An Introduction to

Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

An Introduction to

Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

John D. Winter
Department of Geology Whitman College

EB00062387

Prentice Hall
Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Winter, John D. (John DuNann) An introduction to igneous and metamorphic petrology/by John D. Winter. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-13-240342-0 1. Rocks, Igneous. 2. Rocks, Metamorphic. I. Title. QE461 .W735 2001 552'.l-dc21 00-049196

Senior editor: Patrick Lynch Senior marketing manager: Christine Henry Production editor: Pine Tree Composition Assistant managing editor: Beth Sturla Art director: Jayne Conte Cover design: Bruce Kenselaar Cover photo: Kennan Harvey Manufacturing manager: Trudy Pisciotti Manufacturing buyer: Michael Bell Assistant editor: Amanda Griffith About the cover: Mt. Waddington is a net-veined agmatite. Marginal to a granite, this consists of metamorphed country rock shot through by granitic veining. © 2001 Prentice-Hall Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 0-13-21*03142-0
Prentice-Hall International (UK) Limited, London Prentice-Hall of Australia Pty. Limited, Sydney Prentice-Hall Canada Inc., Toronto Prentice-Hall Hispanoamericana, S. A., Mexico Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi Prentice-Hall of Japan, Inc., Tokyo Pearson Education Asia Pte. Ltd. Editora Prentice-Hall do Brasil, Lda., Rio de Janeiro

This effort is dedicated to the faculty and my fellow graduate students at the University of Washington in the early 1970's. They made geology interesting, and often downright fun. It is also dedicated to my wife, Deborah, and all the families deprived by those who attempt to write a book.

Brief Contents

Preface Part I

xvii Igneous Petrology 1 Chapter 1 Some Fundamental Concepts 2 Chapter 2 Classification and Nomenclature of Igneous Rocks 17 Chapters Textures of Igneous Rocks 27 Chapter 4 Igneous Structures and Field Relationships 46 Chapter 5 An Introduction to Thermodynamics 75 Chapters The Phase Rule and One-and Two-Component Systems 84 Chapter 7 Systems with More than Two Components 105 Chapter 8 Chemical Petrology I: Major and Minor Elements 128 Chapter 9 Chemical Petrology II: Trace Elements and Isotopes 155 Chapter 10 Generation of Basaltic Magmas 181 Chapter 11 Diversification of Magmas 200 Chapter 12 Layered Mafic Intrusions 219 Chapter 13 Mid-Ocean Ridge Volcanism 242 Chapter 14 Oceanic Intraplate Volcanism 260 Chapter 15 Continental Flood Basalts 277 Chapter 16 Subduction-Related Igneous Activity Part I: Island Arcs 293 Chapter 17 Subduction-Related Igneous Activity Part II: Continental Arcs 316 Chapter 18 Granitoid Rocks 343 Chapter 19 Continental Alkaline Magmatism 362 Chapter 20 Anorthosites 401 Metamorphic Petrology 409 Chapter 21 An Introduction to Metamorphism 410 Chapter 22 A Classification of Metamorphic Rocks 433 Chapter 23 Structures and Textures of Metamorphic Rocks 440 Chapter 24 Stable Mineral Assemblages in Metamorphic Rocks 477 Chapter 25 Metamorphic Facies and Metamorphosed Mafic Rocks 496 Chapter 26 Metamorphic Reactions 513 Chapter 27 Thermodynamics of Metamorphic Reactions 535 Chapter 28 Metamorphism of Pelitic Sediments. 562 Chapter 29 Metamorphism of Calcareous and Ultramafic Rocks 586 Chapter 30 Metamorphic Fluids, Mass Transport and Metasomatism 606 Appendix A: Units and Constants Appendix B: Abbreviations and Acronyms Appendix C: The CIPW Norm References 581

Part II

VI

Contents

Preface I Igneous Petrology
Chapter 1

xvii Part 1
Some Fundamental Concepts 2

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7...
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