Sq3R for All Chapter 13 of Biology

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Chapter 13 SQ3Rs


1) What are applied genetics?
2) How is selective breeding useful?
3) Explain the process of hybridization.
4) What are the dangers of inbreeding?
5) When doing a test cross, what are some things you must do?


1) Applied genetics is using genetics to as a technology to further advance and improve life. 2) Selective breeding is used to get desired traits to later generations. 3) In the process of hybridization, which is a form of selective breeding, two organisms are bred together to get desired traits. They select traits that will give hybrid organisms a competitive edge, but there is a disadvantage, it is time consuming and expensive. 4) Harmful recessive traits also can be passed on to future generations. Increases the chance of homozygous recessive offspring 5) When doing a test cross you must have an unknown genotype with one that is homozygous recessive for the desired trait. When doing a test cross, you have to try to determine the genotype of the unknown genotype.


Selective breeding – process by which desired traits of certain plants and animals are selected and passed on to their future generations Inbreeding – process in which two closely related organisms are bred to have the desired traits and to eliminate the undesired ones in future generations Test cross – breeding an organism that has the unknown genotype with one that is homozygous recessive for the desired trait



1) When and how did genetic engineering begin? Also, what is genetic engineering? 2) What are some tools the DNA engineers use?
3) How are restriction enzymes used?
4) What is EcoRI?
5) Explain the process of gel electrophoresis.
6) What is recombinant DNA technology?
7) Go through the process of gene cloning.
8) What is DNA sequencing?
9) What is a polymerase chain reaction?
10) Explain the field of biotechnology.
11) How are transgenic animals, plants, and bacteria different from their “normal” counterparts?


1) By 1970, researchers had discovered the structure of DNA and had determined the central dogma. They wanted to know how each gene contributed to a cell’s function so genetic engineering began. Genetic engineering is technology that involves manipulating the DNA of one organism in order to insert exogenous DNA. 2) DNA engineers use restriction enzymes, gel electrophoresis, recombinant DNA tech, gene cloning, DNA sequencing, and polymerase chain reactions. 3) Restriction enzymes are used to cut viral DNA into fragments after it enters the host bacterium. 4) EcoRI is a restriction enzyme that is used widely by scientists. EcoRi specifically cuts DNA containing the sequence GAATTC. The ends of the DNA fragments created by ECORI are called sticky ends because they contain single-stranded DNA that is complementary. 5) An electric current is used to separate the DNA fragments according to the size of the fragments. DNA fragments are loaded on the negatively charged end of a gel. When the electric current goes through, DNA fragments move toward the positive end of the gel. Smaller fragments moved faster than the larger ones. 6) Recombinant DNA is created from joining two different fragments. In the process of studying recombinant DNA, large amounts of recombinant DNA are needed. The recombinant DNA is transferred into the bacterium through a carrier/vector. Plasmids and viruses are commonly used vectors. An enzyme, DNA ligase, joins the 2 DNA fragments chemically. 7) In gene cloning, the bacterial cells take up the recombinant plasmid DNA through a process called transformation. Bacterial cells can be transformed using electric pulsation or heat. The short electric pulse or a brief rise in temperature causes openings in the plasma membrane. The bacterial cells make copies of the recombinant plasmid DNA during cell replication. 8) Knowing the sequence of a gene, you can predict the...
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