A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers energy by inductive coupling between its winding circuits. A varying current in the primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer's core and thus a varying magnetic flux through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic flux induces a varying electromotive force (EMF), or "voltage", in the secondary winding In electrical engineering, two conductors are referred to as mutual-inductively coupled or magnetically coupled  when they are configured such that change in current flow through one wire induces a voltage across the ends of the other wire through electromagnetic induction. The amount of inductive coupling between two conductors is measured by their mutual inductance. Transformers range in size from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stagemicrophone to huge units weighing hundreds of tons used in power plant substations or to interconnect portions of the power grid. All operate on the same basic principles, although the range of designs is wide. The transformer is based on two principles: first, that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and second that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). Changing the current in the primary coil changes the magnetic flux that is developed. The changing magnetic flux induces a voltage in the secondary coil. An ideal transformer is shown in the figure below. Current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability, such as iron, so that most of the magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils. If a load is connected to the secondary winding, the load current and voltage will be in the directions indicated, given the primary current and voltage in the directions indicated (each will be alternating current in practice). Ideal power transformer
If a load is connected to the secondary winding, current will flow in this winding, and electrical energy will be transferred from the primary circuit through the transformer to the load. Transformers may be used for AC-to-AC conversion of a single power frequency, or for conversion of signal power over a wide range of frequencies, such as audio or radio frequencies. In an ideal transformer, the induced voltage in the secondary winding (Vs) is in proportion to the primary voltage (Vp) and is given by the ratio of the number of turns in the secondary (Ns) to the number of turns in the primary (Np) as follows:
If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow, electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. Ideally, the transformer is perfectly efficient. All the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to themagnetic field and into the secondary circuit. If this condition is met, the input electric power must equal the output power:
giving the ideal transformer equation
Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. For a given core material, the loss is proportional to the frequency, and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected. Eddy current losses
Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors and a core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the flux, and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. Eddy current losses can be reduced by making the core of a stack of plates electrically insulated from each other, rather than a solid block; all...