Sport Injuries

Topics: Injuries, Bone fracture, Inflammation Pages: 11 (4299 words) Published: March 19, 2013
Sport injuries assignment two

Within this assignment, I will be looking at phases of injuries which are common in sports; looking at the physiological response, psychological response and first aid treatment on sports injuries. There is something known as the injury process. Within this, there are two main responses; primary response and secondary response. Primary response is where the tissue destruction happens when there has been force on either muscle or bone, and you can’t change the initial amount of damage. Second response is when there’s cell death which blocks the O2 supply and there is minimal damage to other tissues. As soon as skin and tissue has been injured, healing begins with the healing process which occurs in the first 24 hours of the injury. If the injury is serious, there is something known as the injury processor injury response cycle. This starts when pain from the injury leads to muscle spasm, and all of the muscles which surround the injury start to cramp up and this stops an athlete from moving which would make the injury worse. The pain comes back again once the spasm has gone. This is so that it reduces the function of the area where the injury had been done. The first time soft tissue has been damaged, the area will appear to be swelling which has happened from ruptured blood vessels bleeding around the injury; furthermore, tissue fluid is being released. The blood vessels will dilate, trying to cool down the area which is injured, although, this actually is doing the opposite effect. Instead of cooling down, it’s actually making it hot which increases the swelling, allowing more blood to flow into the area which is injured; furthermore, because of the increase in blood, the outside of the injury will turn red. When the body is performing normally, our blood flows through capillaries which diffuses oxygen and nutrients across capillary wall into the tissue fluid; however, at the same time, tissue fluid diffuses carbon dioxide and other waste products back across the capillary wall into the capillaries. There is something known as lymph nodes which have a very similar function; although, they dispose of excess tissue fluid. When we see redness on the outside of an injury, the blood which has been able to flow into the injured area mixes with the tissue fluid. With this extra fluid which is leaking into the area, the lymph node can’t keep in contact on how much fluid it has to remove, so the swelling can’t be reduced like it should. Heat which has been produced from the injury is due from the increase in blood. It’s not only the blood flow which is happening but other chemical reactions are taking place, and our body has to try and reverse the effect which the injury caused. Pain which we may get from an injury is due to the nerve fibres. In an injury, some nerve fibres may not be able to get repaired because of how damaged they are. Some pain may also be caused by a blood clot or a partially blood clot. This happened within an organ or in soft tissue. This is known as a haematoma (bruise). If you press down on the haematoma, pain will occur. Chemical activity disturb the nerve endings and sometimes skin. Where the injury is, with this, mild discomfort can happen. When there are damaged capillaries, they can no longer control which substances pass through the walls and because of this, proteins make themselves present in the injury area which increases the amount of interstitial fluid protein, due to this, there will be an increase in plasma protein within the blood. Oxygen follows the plasma protein which leaks into the tissue fluid causing oedema. If the swelling around the injury isn’t disappearing, it will overall take longer to heal, and because of this, there may be a change in the neuromuscular function. To help reduce swelling, there is a principle which athletes can follow; however, some people don’t believe that the R which stands for rest should be done. This principle is called...
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