Spoofing is used to hide the true source of packets or redirect traffic to another location. Spoofing attacks: •
Use modified source and/or destination addresses in packets. •
Can include site spoofing that tricks users into revealing information. Common methods of spoofing are listed in the table below:
IP spoofing changes the IP address information within a packet. It can be used to: •
Hide the origin of the attack by spoofing the source address. •
Amplify attacks by redirecting responses to a victim and overwhelming the victim with traffic. MAC spoofing
MAC spoofing is when an attacking device spoofs the MAC address of a valid host currently in the MAC address table of the switch. The switch then forwards frames destined for that valid host to the attacking device. This can be used to bypass: •
A wireless access point with MAC filtering on a wireless network. •
Router access control lists (ACLs).
802.1x port-based security.
ARP spoofing (also known as ARP poisoning) uses spoofed ARP messages to associate a different MAC address with an IP address. ARP spoofing can be used to perform a man-in-the-middle attack as follows: 1.
When an ARP request is sent by a client for the MAC address of a device, such as the default gateway router, the attacker's system responds to the ARP request with the MAC address of the attacker's system. 2.
The client receives the spoofed ARP response and uses that MAC address when communicating with the destination host. For example, packets sent to the default gateway are sent instead to the attacker. 3.
The attacker receives all traffic sent to the destination host. The attacker can then forward these packets on to the correct destination using its own MAC address as the source address. ARP spoofing can also be used to perform Denial of Service (DoS) attacks by redirecting communications to fake or non-existent MAC addresses. Countermeasures to prevent...
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