The SPLM Manifesto
Table of Contents
I. The Problem in its Historical Context I.1 Definition of the Problem The Ills of the Old Sudan
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II. The Rise and Evolution of the SPLM II.1 II.2 II.3 SPLM: Origins The SPLM: Departure from the Thinking Paradigm of “Old Sudan” SPLM: Overcoming Challenges and Contradictions of the Struggle
III.1 III.2 IV.
Vision of the SPLM
Articulation of the Vision Normative Framework of the Vision The New Sudan: Polity, Culture and Society, and Economy Prosperity for All Freedom, Justice and Peace Democratic Governance Rule of Law and Human Rights Democratic Management of Diversity Equitable Growth and Sustainable Development New Sudan in a Globalized World
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Preface: The first SPLM Manifesto was published in July 1983 following the formation of the SPLM/A to lead a revolutionary armed struggle, which started by necessity in the South. It aimed at engulfing the whole country to establish a “united, democratic and secular Sudan”. A lot of waters have gone under the bridge since then in the course of the struggle towards the realization of this lofty objective The Movement has, thus, encountered a number of challenges, emanating from changes in the national, regional and international situation, as well as internal contradictions in the course of the struggle since its inception in 1983. It is the Vision of the New Sudan that has informed the Movement’s political and military developments in the country, and to rearticulate the principles, redefine objectives and chart the development trajectory of the SPLM/A and the Sudanese revolution, in response to the changing political realities both internally and externally. The New Sudan Vision is not by any means a dogma, nor is it a doctrine or ideology! While the vision of the New Sudan has guided and informed the liberation struggle, the vision itself has become more sharpened and enriched by the unfolding developments and events in the process. It has guided the struggle of the Movement since its inception in 1983 against all forms of governments in Khartoum and informed its alliance with the rest of the political forces in the country, as well as its foreign relations. The correctness of the vision has since been vindicated by the unfolding developments in the country, notably; the outbreak of war in Eastern Sudan and intensification of war in Darfur, and frictions in the far north. On the other hand, as the Old Sudan undergoes fundamental change in its transition into the New Sudan, the SPLM itself is bound to evolve and undergo fundamental change as well. So, while its basic content has remained the same, the Movement has undergone a process of metamorphosis over the years. It is within the intricate set of complexities of the transition from war to peace (following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005), and from authoritarianism to democratic polity, including the challenges of transforming the SPLM into a fully-fledged political party, that this present Manifesto of the SPLM, which is different from the first versions in many ways, but echoes the same basic ideas, has been prepared for, and approved by the Second SPLM National Convention in May 2008. This version of the Manifesto, therefore, espouses and presents the main SPLM ideals, concepts, principles and core values that would guide and inform the development of the Movement’s programs, strategies, policies, and tactics in the various spheres. In a nutshell, the SPLM Manifesto is essentially a synthesis of the Movement’s New Sudan Vision.
I. The Problem of the Sudan in its Historical Context
I.1 Definition of the Problem
I.1.1 The central problem of the Sudan is that its reality, both in terms of its historical perspective and its contemporary context, conflicts fundamentally with the policies of the various...