Wisdom really means practical good sense/ prudence.
But who exactly in the community has this? Only the Gaurdians. Temperance (principle of solidarity) and justice (principle of diffrenciation) doesn’t pertain to only one class of the community (unlike wisdom and courage), it pertains to all 3 classes. 2 different aspects of the mind:
1- inner conflict
2- spirit or passion
Chapter 12- justice is at the level of the community (Socrates) ---community should be:
1- courages if it has the right auxiliaries
2- temperate if the 3 classes of citizens are on the same page 3- just, if the 3 classes of citizens stick with their jobs and don’t mess with otiher jobs Freud- Id; ego; superego
Don’t say anything about how Socrates defines these:
4 forms of human excellence
Explain why the individual mind and soul has 3 parts, and how he defines the 4 things in individuals in terms of the 3 parts.
Explain Chapters 13 and 14 and a little of 34
3 parts of the soul: soul has inner conflict and elements
Analyzes a Common experience= inner conflict (ex: between spirit and physical) Materialist- material in your body. Everything that exists can be analyzed into atoms and matter in terms of physics and chemistry. (people think it means putting too much value upon money. Overvaluing material possessions).= BRAIN Dualist- don’t identify the mind with the body. But you think it’s a distinguishable thing. The mind and the body are 2 diff things. Parts of the soul (reason, spirit, appetite) are the raw material that the virtues of the individual (wisdom) can be made of. Youre wise when you know what the best thing for you is using your reason. Spirit is your capacity for courage, like reason is your capacity for wisdom pg140- a community is courages when it has loyal and public spirit, and gaurdians with a power of retention/preservation. Couragous in the individual is when you stay faithful and loyal no matter what happens. There are things worse than death. Keep your priorities straight. That’s courage.
your papretites make you fearful.
Temperance- different psychi parts function smoothly together Justice- achievement delevoped on the parts/raw materials that develop temperance.
Diff between KNOWLEDGE and BELIEF… how does he use beauty to illustrate the difference? He thinks both refer to powers/abilities/faculties for grasping/apprehending things with your mind. But they differ with regard with what they enable you to grasp/get a hold of with your mind. They differ in their field of option. He says belief has to do with things you can grasp using your bodily senses. Power to grasp variable things. Knowledge is grasping using your mind/intellect/reason. Power to grasp invariable things/forms (like circularity/triangularity/squareness). With our bodily senses (sight, smell, touch) we apprehend lots of beautiful things (like beautiful sounds, sights). We wouldn’t make comparative judgments of being more/less beautiful with sounds/sights unless we had a standard in mind to compare it to. Beauty itself is invariable, it doesn’t change. They all have in common/share the form of beauty itself. Object of Knowledge are invariable (not changing). Example are a bunch of circles getting closer and closer to a perfect circle, but they all share the same thing- circularity in itself, but none of them have it perfectly. But we can apprehend circularity and prove things about it (ratio; all points are equidistant). That’s knowledge. It’s the form of the circularity and how it connects to the other forms. Forms/objects of knowledge are related to one another and the ultimate form of good. communities ought to have leaders committed to the promoting of the general good. Its good for our political figures to be skillful debaters Pg 183. Belief is your power apprehending things with your bodily senses that are never perfectly what they are....
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