SITE FOR PLANTING ONIONS:
1.) Accessibility to good roads, transportation facilities, and market
A good farm-to-market road is practically essential. Bad roads limit the size of loads, increase wear and tear, and cause crops to be bruise. 2.) Well-drained areas
A gently sloping land is a good site because it allows for efficient water drainage. The site should not have any depression where water may accumulate. 3.) Soil fertility
Spice crops can be grown in almost all types of soil. However, they thrive best in loose, friable, sandy loam soil rich in organic matter. 4.) Climatic conditions
Most spice crops grow best under warm humid climates but some grow in dry environments. Determining what kind of spice crop to grow in a particular area should be done beforehand. 5.) Rainfall
The amount of rainfall is important because spice crops do not grow well in areas with excessive rainfall. Instead, they grow faster in places with direct exposure to sunlight.
Preparing the Onions
There are several varieties of onion grow here in the Philippines. Among them are Red Globe, Excel, Granex, Red Creoles, Crystal Wax, Japanese Bunching, Baguio green,and Beltsville Bunching.
The onion plot should be plowed, harrowed, and left in good tilth. The surface should be well worked and smooth. For every kilogram, prepare a 1x10 meter plot. Prepare five plots and five kilograms of seeds for every hectare of planting area.
Sow the seeds thinly and evenly then water the plot. Cover them with a thin layer of pulverized soil to avoid exposure to sunlight. Keep the soil moist by watering it every week with ammonium sulfate. Seedlings are grown for 30-40days. As the onion matures, gradually decrease water supply to promote proper bulb ripening. Stop watering when the tops of onion start falling over as they are almost ready for harvesting. Onion’s keeping quality is longer when it is fully ripe when harvested.
PLANTING AND CARING FOR ONIONS:
Planting and Transplanting
Onions can be planted either by clean culture or mulch culture method. If clean culture is used, the field should be plowed and harrowed to remove the weeds and pulverized the soil. One or double rows are then made, and complete fertilizer and processed fertilizer at the rate of 4-6 kg. per 100sq. m of land are thoroughly mixed and applied. The plots should be sufficiently irrigated to wet the soil.
In the mulch method, the field is not plowed. Instead, the remaining stalks are cut nearest to the ground. Then, the field is allowed to dry while the weeds are removed. The field should be irrigated three days before transplanting. Fertilizer should be applied a week before transplanting. The amount of fertilizer to apply may depend on the native soil fertility, thus soil analysis is necessary.
After 30-40 days, irrigate the field to loosen the soil. Uproot the seedlings carefully, and plant them in the plot in columns with a distance of 8-10cm. Make sure that the soil has enough moisture while the plants are growing.
In the plot method, the first watering is done after one week from the date of planting. Irrigate the field just enough to water the soil. Apply the fertilizer consisting of five bags of ammonium sulfate and five bags of urea per hectare are then applied. The field is then irrigated every 10days. On the third irrigation, a combination of five bags of urea and five bags of muriate of potash are applied. On the fourth irrigation, 20 bags of complete fertilizer per hectare are then applied
In the mulched method, less irrigation is done because the rice straws can retain the moisture of the soil longer. In both methods of planting, irrigation is no longer done one month before harvesting the crops.
Pest and Diseases
The common Pest that attack onions are thrips and nocturnal...