Speed Quality in Apparent Motion and Flipbooks using the Likert Scale Rachel Anyanwu
Psychology 3552: Laboratory in Sensation and Perception
University of Connecticut at Storrs
Seven participants each viewed two flipbooks of slow and fast speeds of hand-drawn dots and stick figures. By counterbalancing the conditions, each participant watched the flipbooks according to the sequential order. After viewing either the slow or fast flipbooks, a questionnaire was used to collect and calculate raw data of the experience; which concerned realness, enjoy ability, smoothness, and speed quality. Hypothesizing how speed affects the quality of a flipbook supports Gestalt’s theory and dynamic case of apparent motion perceived. However, contradicting and compromising with the low-speed assumption and case first reported by Wallach.
A popular and thorough explanation for brain and visual functioning, perception, and sensation is known as ‘Gestalt Theory.’ Gestalt theory explains that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. Individual parts alone cannot conclude to be as great or effective as the whole entirely. This is important to recognize because a better understanding of why and how the world is viewed as a whole picture can be related to real world instances. Such as in motion pictures and in flipbooks, which helps to differentiate between perceiving apparent motion and actual, real motion. For instance, we involuntarily blink our eyes everyday, and although this is an action of real motion, apparent motion plays its part by filling in the blanks of blackness or darkness when blinking occurs. Furthermore, the theory then can translate to: the whole experience of sensation and perception is greater than the sum of individual parts of sensation and perception. The theories of Gestalt help to explain extraordinary circumstances and phenomena’s of perception that are experienced in life, whether that may be visual or auditory illusions as well. In particular, apparent motion is a more specific area of study in Gestalt theory which touches upon this psychological and perceptual experience. Apparent motion previously studied suggests that it “may result when stationary stimuli are presented sequentially to different retinal locations. Apparent motion is inferred from information about change in position. (Green, 1983).”The successive presentation elicits an impression of motion (Sato, 1989).” “The perception of motion depends on the integration of visual information over space and time.(Snowden, 1990).” This information subsequently leads to the research question to pursue of: does speed effect the quality of apparent motion perceived in a flipbook? It may seem like a simple question to ask, but also factoring in a questionnaire, participant feelings, two flipbooks of with two speed settings of slow and fast, and different colored pages can lead to possible, unsuspecting findings about the phenomena of apparent motion; which has mostly been individually considered in previous studies. There has been many studies on dot patterns, biological factors, vision, sound perception, and real motion in relation to apparent motion. So, this experiment is quite different than the usual, although it may be as simple as using a flipbook and participants. However, previous studies helped strengthen the answers of the research question and hypothesis. Therefore, supporting studies reported by Gepshstein and Kubovy (2007) suggest that: for every speed, there “exists a condition for which contrast sensitivity is maximal.” They also found results that determined speed concludes the regime of motion; which can strengthen the hypothesis of speed effecting apparent motion being perceived.
Participants. Seven participants from Connecticut participated in an independent research project concerning a class of psychological sensation and perception. There were four males and three females who had...