Sadie Broadway
Speed of Sound In Air
We are studying the speed of sound in air currently in our physics class. The speed of sound is the distance traveled by a sound wave through an elastic medium during a period of time. The speed of sound is extremely interesting, as it’s actually the speed of transmission of a small disturbance through a medium. The speed of sound occurs constantly, whenever a sound is heard. It’s everywhere, and in air we are discovering certain factors like altitude and air density. The speeds in ideal gases and air have their own formulas: Thus,
For a gas the K is given by the formula above, and the C is the coefficient of stiffness in solids. Thus the second formula is given. (Gamma) is the adiabatic index, then is the pressure, and the regular P is the density.
In general, the speed of sound is given in the formula:
K is a coefficient of stiffness, the bulk modulus, and P is the density. Then there is a more complex formula for equations of state, if classic mechanics are used, then speed of sound is given in the formula:
The variable is the pressure, and the regular P is the density. Those are just a few other formulas for other substances for the speed of sound. Below I included a chart to help determine and understand the speed of sound on a different level:
The speed of sound is related mostly to the temperature, thus in higher altitudes it’s usually lower because higher altitudes mostly maintain lower temperatures. So in Mammoth I believe that the speed of sound through air would be much slower than places with lower altitudes, especially during the winter. Therefore in our lab I believe that our calculations were technically correct since our altitude is much higher than sea level. Molecules at higher temperatures have more energy and so they vibrate faster. Since the molecules are vibrating faster, then sound travels faster through them. At lower temperatures, for instance at higher altitudes, air...
...Oklahoma City Community College Phsyics 1 
Speed of Sound 
Mastery Experiment 

Lindsay Pickelsimer 
12/3/2010 

The speed of sound is a traveled distance through a certain amount of time that uses sound waves that spreads through and elastic medium. It usually depends on the temperature to which how fast it travels; speed of sound is increased when temperature increases. Frequency and wave length deals with determining the speed of sound. Speed of sound is inversely proportional to that of the wave length. In other words, if the velocity increases to a higher speed, then the wave length decreases in size.
A series of different instruments were used in determining the speed of sound in this experiment. This included a frequency meter, a signal generator, a speaker, a microphone, and an oscilloscope. Each had its own purpose in measuring the speed of sound. Specified values were used in this experiment.
Instrument  Manufacturer  Model No.  Range  Least Count 
Oscilloscope  B and K Precision  1472c  015MHz  1Hz 
Frequency meter  Daedalon Co.  N/A  20Hz2MHz  .001 Hz 
Signal generator  EMCO  SS1  20Hz2MHz ...
...and the maximum displacement. In this wave, it would be from the equilibrium to the top of the crest or bottom of the trough.
B)
C)
Speed: m/s
Frequency: Hz
D)
Speed: because speed is constant and not affected by the change in frequency.
Wavelength:0.4 Hz.
2. In transvers waves the motion of the particles is perpendicular to the direction of the energy. In longitudinal waves it they are parallel to each other.
Wavelength is the distance a wave has travelled after one cycle and does not change. Amplitude is the distance between the equilibrium and the maximum displacement of the wave, and it decreases as a wave travels through a medium.
Period is the time it takes to complete one cycle. Frequency is the number of cycles completed in one second.
3. Before:
After:
Fixed end
4.
Period:
Frequency:
Time to complete 5.0 cycles:
Lesson 2
5.
Speed:
Temp:
6. If the air temperature increases the speed of the sound will increase, because for every increase of 1 the speed of sound increase by 0.59m/s
7. If the temperature of the air increases the wavelength will also increase because the speed of the sound increases. In order to stay at 420Hz, the wavelength must increase....
...EXPERIMENT : Speed of sound
2. OBJECTIVE: : (1) To determine the wavelength of a sound in resonance air column.
(2) To determine the speed of sound in air at room temperature.
3. APPARATUS : Resonance tube (air column) attached with water container and meter stick, thermometer, function generator, speaker.
4. THEORY: : Sound is a longitudinal wave in a medium.
If n is the frequency and is the wavelength of the standing wave, than the speed of the sound at the temperature t c is given by:
vt = (1)
Wavelength (ג)
The speed of sound in air at 0 °C is 331.5 m/s, and as the temperature rises it increases at the rate of about 60 cm/s per degree centigrade. Hence the speed of sound vt at temperature t is obtained from the speed v0 at 0 °C by the relation
vt = v0 + 0.6 t (m/s) (2)
vt = [ 331.5 + 0.6 t ] (m/s)
5. INSTRUCTIONS
1. Record the frequency of speaker (source of vibrating object) from the function generator....
...focusing on the question: Does a change in the frequency of a wave result in a significant and convincing change in the speed of the wave?
Hypothesis: Changing the frequency of the wave will not result in a change in speed because the wavelength will change proportionally as in theory.
Student Designed Investigation
Procedure/ Planning
Procedure:
1. Three students would get into a group.
2. A Slinky would be spread along a table or along the floor and set up as it shows on the diagram above for about 4 meters.
1. For proper data, the length of the floor was measured and marked with a tape.
2. A student would make small waves, while another would time it with a stopwatch until it reaches the other side. This step would be repeated, however the wave would be bigger or smaller, in order to find out if changing the frequency, the speed would change.
3. With the data recoded for many different waves, the velocity would be compared for all of them.
Materials:
1. Slinky
2. Roleup meter stick
3. Stopwatch
4. Tape
5. Pen/Pencil
6. Three Lab partners
Proposal (diagram) of each Trial:
Trial 1: Trial 2: Trial 3:
Trial 4: Trial 5:
Planning:
According to theory, as frequency changes, the wavelength will change proportionally; therefore, speed will remain the same. By following the procedure that...
...PHY 113:
Speed of Sound Resonance Tube
Student’s name: Ilian Valev
Lab partners: Jayanthi Durai, Susan Berrier, Chase Wright
Date of experiment: April 15, 2010
Section SLN: 17742
TA’S name: Alex
Abstract:
This experiment tried to determine the speed of sound waves. To determine the speed, a resonance tube full of water was used and two different tuning forks of known frequency. Each fork was struck above the water level and the water level was slowly moved down until a resonance was heard. The distance where the resonance occurs were recorded and the speed of the waves were determined. The experimental speed of sound was then compared to the calculated theoretical speed of sound. The results obtained were very close to the theoretical speed of sound thus proving that they were precise.
I. Objective.
To measure the speed of sound waves in air.
II. Procedure.
This lab utilizes the following materials: resonance tube, tuning forks, rubber mallet, wooden mallet, measuring tape and thermometer.
Fill the tube with water to about 10cm to the open end of the tube. To adjust the level of the water in the tube, move the side bucket up and down in the vertical direction. Use two...
...Title: Measuring the speed of sound.
Research question: How to determine the speed of sound by using the relationship between the
frequency of the signal generator, f and the length of air column in the tube, l .
Variables:
Manipulated  Frequency of the signal generator, f  Use different frequency of signal generator which are 1000Hz, 1400Hz, 1800Hz, 2000Hz, 2500Hz, 3000Hz and 3600Hz. 
Responding  Length of air column in the tube, l (±0.5cm)  Measure the length of the air column in the tube using a metrerule. 
Constant  The volume of water, VAtmospheric pressure, atm (±0.1 Hgcm)Temperature, T (±0.5oc)Diameter of the resonance tube, D (±0.01cm)  Use the same water when conducting the experiment.The experiment is conducted at the same place so that the atmospheric pressure is fixed which is 75.6 Hgcm.The experiment is conducted at the same place so that the temperature is fixed which is 30.05ocThe diameter of the resonance tube is fixed to 2.18cm 
Table 1: Manipulated, responding and constant variable.
Apparatus and Materials:
Apparatus and materials  Quantity 
Signal generator  1 
Loudspeaker  1 
Resonance tube  1 
Retort stand with clamp  1 
Delivery tube  1 
Barometer  1 
Vernier caliper (±0.01cm)  1 
Metrerule (±0.5cm)  1 
Highlighter  1 
Water   
Table 2 : The Apparatus and...
...Speed of Sound Lab
Physics 0871
Purpose:
To determine the speed of sound of the classroom, by measuring different wavelength produced by resonance of closed tube via frequencies 256Hz, 512Hz, and 1024Hz.
Hypothesis:
Wavelength of sound wave generated by resonance of closed tube is given by multiplying four times the tube length. By knowing the frequency of sound produced by the closed tube, we can determine the speed of sound by the product of frequency and wavelength. We can achieve this by utilizing tuning forks with specific frequency, and measuring the length of tube where resonance occur.
Method:
Refer to Laboratory Manual Physics 0861  0871, page 26
Material:
Refer to Laboratory Manual Physics 0861  0871, page 26
Diagram:
Data Table:
Best Value
Estimate of Error
Diameter of Tube
3.0cm
±0.1cm
Correction Factor
1.2cm
±0.1cm
Frequency (1)
1024Hz
±1Hz
Measured Length (1)
7.8cm
±0.2cm
Corrected Length (1)
9.0cm
±0.3cm
Wavelength (1)
36.0cm, 0.36m
±1.3cm, ±0.01m
Measured Speed (1)
Speed Max: 383m/s
369m/s
±14m/s
Frequency (2)
512Hz
±1Hz
Measured Length (2)
15.5cm
±0.1cm
Corrected Length (2)
16.7cm
±0.2cm
Wavelength (2)
66.8cm, 0.668m
±0.8cm, ±0.008m
Measured Speed (2)
Speed Max: 348m/s...
...want to see how long it takes sound to travel down and back in a tube, determine the speed of that sound, and compare the average of that value to the speed of sound in air. The temperature in the room is 21.8 degrees C, which means that the speed of sound should be 344.5. The value that we obtained for the closed tube was averaged at .00609, which accounts for aspeed of 328.4 m/s which is pretty close to the accepted value (5% change). The open ended tube averaged to be 289.85 m/s which is ~15% off from the anticipated value. We can see that the closed tube had faster travel time than the open tube. Ultimately we were able to record how long the sound took to travel in the tube, determine the speed of sound, and compare it to the expected value.
Objective:
The objective of this experiment is to measure how long it takes sound to travel down and back in a long tube, determine the speed of sound, and compare the speed of sound in air to the value that’s accepted.
Procedures:
First, start by connecting the Vernier Microphone to channel 1 of the interface. Then, use a thermometer to measure the temperature of the classroom and record this value. Now, open file “33 Speed of...
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