There are many times in everyday life that there is miscommunication in delivering a message to others; at one point or another, miscommunication will happen to everyone. Often the miscommunication is out of one’s control there is simply a misunderstanding of the intended message. Speech disorders are a type of communication disorders where 'normal' speech is disrupted. A problem within society is the belief that speech disorders have a simple explanation as to why it exists. While it is difficult to accurately pinpoint the explanation of why speech disorders exists, this paper will shed some light onto what is considered to be a speech disorders, how they are developed, and some of the symptoms associated. Because there is a certain level of complexity in the development, it is impossible to attribute any particular characteristics to speech disorders. However, I will be using two communication theories as possible tools for grasping the social dimensions associated with speech disorders. What is considered to be a speech disorder is somewhat hard to define. Speech disorder is an umbrella term for any one of the following: articulation disorder, phonological disorder, apraxia of speech, fluency disorder, or voice disorder (Bleile, 2004). Persons who have articulation disorder can be known to do one or more of the following: delete sounds (bu/ instead of /bus/), substitute sounds (sree/ instead of /three/), add sounds (spagbetti/ instead of /spaghetti) or distort sounds (thpoon/ instead of /spoon). Phonological disorder occurs when a child does not develop the ability to produce some or all sounds necessary for speech that are normally used at his or her age. The difference between the two: Articulation is the correct movement of the speech producers to make intelligible speech. Phonology deals with the rules (patterns) of the sound system of language. These disorders can be caused/characterized by a multitude of things: an individual using the repetition of sounds, cancer of the throat, making words longer, eye blinking while talking, having tooth problems, shape of the muscles and bones, damage to parts of the brain, and sounds being substituted, left off, added, or changed among a multitude of other things that are used to describe some of the symptoms and causes of speech disorders. Using these examples, it is obvious that this is a very common problem. Speech disorders can define almost anyone in current society; it is not exclusive to any group in particular. In fact, it is said that only 5% to 10% of the population has a completely normal manner of speaking (with respect to all parameters) and healthy voice; all others suffer from one disorder or another. Roughly five percent of all youth, aged from birth to twenty-one years old, has speech or language impairments (Turnbull, 2004). This particular study showed that speech disorders are not exclusive to any one culture or nationality in particular; rather that it is a global problem containing many catalysts. Speech disorders in America are more common than we may think. By the time children enter the first grade, five percent are diagnosed with speech disorders. Statistically, between six and eight million Americans have some kind of language impairment (Turnbull, 2004). Communication disorders affect one out of every ten people in the Unites States and more than one million students had a speech or language impairment for the 2000-2001 school years ("Speech Sound Disorders: Causes and Number," 2009). This means that language impairment to Americans is statistically as common as being under the care of a chiropractor. These numbers show there are a high percentage of speech disorders, but how they are caused is still somewhat unknown. What exactly causes speech disorders has remained somewhat anonymous. Speech and language disorders can be related to other disorders, or can stand-alone. Hearing, health and...
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