Speech disorders in young children are early indicators that give reason to students having difficulty in aspects of cognition. Speech is not only a motor skill, but also a cognitive skill in the form that speech is language that comes from within the brain. “Speech problems and reading disorders are linked, suggesting that speech problems may potentially be an early marker of later difficulty in associating graphemes with phonemes.” (Foy & Mann 2011) The brocoa's area of the brain is where speech comes from. When this area is affected, children can lose cognitive skill from forming words to reading books by using inner speech. By providing children with speech therapy or speech intervention, the cognitive areas affected may become unaffected. Studies have connected speech disorders with cognitive delays when children do not receive proper treatment, but have found that with proper treatment and practice, speech disorders and delays may be eliminated. This also suggests that reading schools in students with speech delays will increase.
Speech development is essential when it comes to childhood. One type of speech we have is private speech. Private speech is part of Vygotsky’s theory in which he suggested is a form that goes on in the brain without being projected. (Patterson, 2009) There is also perception speech, which is heard from outside sources when an infant is cognitively ready to pick up on speech patterns. (Patterson, 2009) According to Patterson, “language acquisition proceeds more rapidly when infants hear a lot of spoken language around them.” But what happens when a baby who has heard language is unable to speak? This is where speech pathology or therapy is crucial. Because language is so important when it comes to communication with others and educational aspects, speech therapy is essential when natural speech is not being produced. This topic is particularly popular in elementary schools, because speech disorders and delays are so popular among children. Schools all over the United States are required to have a trained speech pathologist in which children visit on a daily basis. (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2012) The children seen by the school pathologist are those who have been diagnosed with speech impairment or who are diagnosed on the autism scale. This shows how prevalent speech pathology is when it comes to speech disorders and delays.
“Children’s speech sound development is assessed by comparing speech production with the typical development of speech sounds based on child’s age and developmental profile.” (Anderson & Cohen 2012) Speech delays and disorders all fall under an umbrella of communication disorders. According to Hallahan, Kauffman, and Pullen, “a communication disorder impairs the ability to transmit or receive ideas, facts, feelings, and desires and may involve language or speech or both, including hearing, listening, reading, or writing.” Because these communication disorders are so popular among children, speech therapy is essential. One cause of speech delay is a clef palate or clef lip. A clef is an opening in the body where development did not take place properly. In the instance of a clef lip or palate, the child may have issues with speech, because their mouth was not developed correctly. The development of speech can heavily weigh on the time a baby makes their first sound. When a baby is born with a clef lip or palate, the time it takes them to produce a sound is extended. Speech pathology will only better the chances of a child being able to have a full functionally language set.
“A significant number of children with autism have difficulty acquiring speech. It’s estimated that one third to one half of children with autism lack functional communication.” (National Research Council, 2001.) Because every 1 out of 100 children are placed on the autism spectrum every year, speech pathology is crucial. (Hallahan, Kauffman, & Pullen, 2012) Most of these autistic children are...
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