Spectator Management

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1. Background of the Study

Winning in all the different environments depends on participants’ relative performance. In other words, it does not matter how good you are in absolute terms. For example, how fast you can run 200 metres. But, whether you can run faster than your competitors. In one investigation, a unique opportunity to study the influence of the spectators occurs when the audience prevented from attending the game played by two university basketball teams. The results that indicated from Moore and Brylinksy (1993) showed that the players were performs better than if there are supportive audience at the court.

The relationship between audience support and performance is complicated. The notion was introduced by Baumeister and Steinhilber (1984), whose archival research on baseball World Series and basketball championship series revealed that home teams tended to lose the decisive game of the championship series, in sharp contrast to their winning records in most other games. There are often benefits to supportive audiences is not in doubt.

However, supportive audience will give the paradox influences which means the negative influences to the sport performers especially in sport championship. As stated in research before, participants with supportive audiences actually performed worse on difficult tasks involving skill than participants with unsupportive audiences (Butler and Baumeister, 1998).

Actually, paradoxical is a seemingly contradictory statement that may nonetheless be true. Furthermore, it is also can be described as one exhibiting inexplicable or contradictory aspects (Houghton Mifflin Company, 2009). So, here we can say that paradoxical influences of supportive audience on performance athletes are more likely the negative influences or disadvantages of supportive audience to athletes’ performance.

1. Statement of the Problem

The relationship between audience and the performer is complex, and is determined by the interaction of the particular factors pertaining in any specific spotting situation. There are many factors that influence the performance of athlete. Normally, performance of athletes will affect with coach, competitors, venue, referee and fans. Usually, we can see that athletes’ performance will be improved when there are attendances of their supportive audiences. So, the main purpose of this study is to examine the positive influences of supportive audience on performance athlete. Based on Greer (1983), he found that during both normal and booing crowd behavior conditions, the home team's performance was better than that of the visiting team. Zajonc proposed that the presence of an audience has the effect of increasing (drive) in performing subjects (Zajonc, 1965). In our country Malaysia, we can see how the supportive audiences gave a big impact and changes to our Malaysian Football Team. Supports or endorsements from their families, football fans and Malaysian people were had proven that supportive audiences will give positive influences to the athletes’ performance. Based on an article from The Malay Mail by Faizal Nor Izham on 14th February 2011, he said that he was disheartened when Malaysia lost 1-5 to Indonesia in the opening stage, but by the time he attended Malaysia's semi-final match against Vietnam at Bukit Jalil, the stadium was full. The fans played a big role in boosting the morale of our team. Because of that, we have managed to win the scared Suzuki Cup AF trophy that we have been dreamed of for a very long time ago.

However, there is sometimes where audiences gave negative influences to the performance athletes. So, the rational of this study also is to determine whether supportive audience’s gives negative influences to the performance athlete. According to Sports Illustrated online (2003), the ‘‘captains felt it was too much pressure for any...
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