Tourism sector is one of the most growing sectors in the world. During the last decades there has been an increase in the field of studies that analyze the impact of tourism for country and its development. As every area of studies tourism as a part of national and world economy has its adherents and opponents. All of authors in their studies, works and investigations provide us with argues that confirm their opinions. We also suppose that tourism has positive and negative impacts as every sector of economy and every part of social life. And in our essay we would like to introduce negative sides of tourism industry. Our work consists of few main aims.
Firstly we are going to present five Regional reports with threats for the next tourism regions: South West Oltenia (Romania); South West Region of Bulgaria; Crete (Island of Greece); Madeira (Island of Portugal); Balearic Islands (Spain). As we will see, the majority of threats (so, problems) with which those 5 destinations face, are common. Finally, all the threats will be summarize in general and that for sure will give us the idea that tourism have to modified it strategy, with more stakeholder cooperation, the ones that should be prepared to meet and take advantage of differentiation. Otherwise “too much tourism killed tourism” so a stronger preventative approach has to be embedded in tourism strategies and business actions. Secondly we will introduce the main problems of specialization on tourism which are common for whole world tourism and which have influence on the improvement of welfare of countries. This part will show non-economic sides of tourism in general. It will give us the opportunity to conclude that specialization on tourism is not the optimal choice for the state and it may cause a disaster, but not a success. Also we will talk about tourism policy and problems of its implementation. Finally we are going to describe economic problems with which tourism specialized countries (or destinations) face all the time in shot- and long-run perspectives. This part is mainly built on the consideration of “Dutch disease”. Dutch Disease refers to the relationship between natural resource exports and the decline of the manufacturing sector. The reaction of an economy shocks the foreign currency inflows, trigger as natural resources booms, surges in capital inflows, foreign aid, remittances and others. All this effect, as obviously, leads to an appreciation of the real exchange rate, generate factor reallocation, and reduce manufacturing output and net exports. Our studies will show that economies that are heavily orientated towards tourism, show signs of Dutch disease and as a result, their economic growth might be compromised in coming years.
NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF TOURISM SPECIALIZATION
Tourism is seen by many as a means for economic growth. In fact, many case studies would suggest that this is true. But from the other hand we know that there are a lot of negative impacts and threats in this area. We would like to start from briefly Summaries according with Regional Tourism Reports. This information was proved by part of performing SWOT analysis for European industry. It presents the analysis on the current state of tourism in each Region, the SWOT analysis prepared by the partners of TOUREG and proposed action plans for making tourism in each Region more competitive. So next we will summary the five Regional reports according only to each threat for tourism in: South West Oltenia (Romania); South West Region of Bulgaria; Crete (Island of Greece); Madeira (Island of Portugal); Balearic Islands (Spain). In the recent decades all those destinations experienced a touristic boom, thanks to the extraordinary success in their tourism industries. However, in the last few years they receive only undergone moderate or inexistent economic growth. THREATS Analysis for South West Oltenia (Romania):...