Special Issues in Agriculture in the Philippines

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Special Issues in Agriculture

Special Issues in Agriculture

Edited by

Eliseo R. Ponce

PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas

BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH

Copyright 2004 by the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) and the Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR)

Printed in the Philippines. All rights reserved. The views expressed in this book are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any organzation.

Please address all inquiries to:

PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES NEDA sa Makati Building, 106 Amorsolo Street Legaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, Philippines Tel.: (63-2) 8935705/8924059 Fax: (63-2) 8939589/8161091 E-mail: publications@pidsnet.gov.ph URL: http://www.pids.gov.ph

ISBN 971-564-074-5 RP 11-04-300

T ABLE ABLE
Foreword Preface

OF OF

ONTENTS C ONTENTS

...........................................................................................xi ........................................................................................ xiii

C H A P T E R ON E
Research Program Planning for Agricultural Resource Management: A Background Analysis by Agnes C. Rola Introduction ......................................................................................... 1 Status of the Agricultural Resource Base in the Philippines ............................................................... 2 Soil Degradation in Lowland Agriculture: The Role of Nutrient Management ........................................... 4 Imperatives for Soil Conservation in the Uplands ........................... 11 Water and Agriculture ....................................................................... 14 Proposed Research Program for NRM: Focus on Agricultural Resource Management ........................ 19 Conclusion .......................................................................................... 22 References .......................................................................................... 22

C HAPTER T WO
Literature Review of the Agricultural Distribution Services Sector: Performance, Efficiency and Research Issues by Ponciano S. Intal Jr. and Luis Osman Ranit Introduction ....................................................................................... 29 The Philippine Agricultural Distribution System ............................. 32 Marketing Margins and Distribution Services .................................. 69 Other Research Concerns: Price Policy, Multimarket Analysis and Export Marketing .......................... 80 Conclusion: Research Gaps and Suggestions for Research on Agricultural Distribution and Development ............................................................................. 83 Appendix .......................................................................................... 87 References .......................................................................................... 97

v

C HAPTER T HREE
Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in the Philippines: The Need for a Strategic Approach by Saturnina C. Halos Introduction ..................................................................................... 101 Scope of Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture ..................... 102 Trends and Issues ............................................................................. 110 Philippine Agricultural Biotechnology R&D .................................. 128 The Proposed National Biotechnology Research and Development Program for Agriculture, Forestry and Environment (PCARRD) ........................................................ 133 Conclusion: Integrating Biotechnology into the Agricultural Research Agenda ......................................... 149 References ........................................................................................ 151

C HAPTER FOUR
Property Rights Reform in...
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