Special Education

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Introduction
Special Education in Pakistan is relatively a new field of Education, in 1980s; early Institutions were established on Government behalf. There has been extensive research worldwide but in Pakistan research in Special Education is still in its early days. There are five fields of Special Education in Punjab, Pakistan; Hearing Impaired, Visually Impaired, Physically Disable, Mentally Retarded and Slow Learners. In year 2007, separate institutions were established to provide education to Slow Learner children. Special education (Slow learners) needs to be extensively researched in Pakistani culture. Special Education in World Perspective

Generally over the ages, the disabled have been rejected and exploited by the society, the early history of the handicap is particularly pathetic and tragic. During ancient times Greek and Romans did not believe that weak or disabled were candidates for education e.g. the Greeks did not allow disabled children to live. The efforts of religious group and missionaries should also be given credit for early efforts to educate the disabled (Khatoon, 2003). The emergence of the disciplines of psychology and sociology and beginning of widespread use of mental testing in early twentieth century had enormous implication for the growth of special education. Jean More Gaspard Hard (1775-1838) a French Physician who wrote about the education of deaf students, is the person to whom most historians trace the beginning of special education as discipline. Horn (1924) wrote a book, which is the first text book dealing with the “education of exception children”. By the 1700 school for deaf were established in England, France and Germany. The first school in USA for students who were deaf was started in 1817 in Hartford Connecticut. The invention of Braille type writer and stereotyping machine by Frank Hall in 1890 and the introduction in to the USA in the 1920s, which allowed Braille to be printed on both sides of a page, opened the way for a richer supply of embossed books (Khatoon, 2003).

History of the working with Mentally Retarded children starts from 1798 when Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, the French physician started training of a boy. Later residential institutions were established throughout Europe and Great Britain by the mid 19th century. In USA Samuel Gridley Howe, the first director of Perkin School for the blind in Boston developed the first American Mental Retardation Institution in 1948. In 1905 Alfred Binet was appointed by the minister of public education in France to develop techniques for identifying students in need of special education (Khatoon, 2003). Compulsory education has been in effect in schools for the blind and the deaf since 1948, and in schools for the mentally retarded, physically impaired, and health impaired since 1979. Special education in Japan began with the foundation of the School for the Blind and Deaf in Kyoto in 1878. The government of India has recently enacted disability Act 1995. The Act provides that the government shall ensure that every child with disability has access to free education an appropriate environment till the age of 18 years. It is estimated that India has approximately 35 million children with disabilities but less than 1 percent has access to education. Currently only blind, deaf, M.R, children are largely covered (Khatoon, 2003). The Scene in Pakistan

The education of the disabled children in Pakistan started in the beginning of 20th century when Pakistan was part of the Indian sub-continent under the control of British governance. The earliest school was established in the first and second decade of the 20th century in the provinces of Punjab and Sindh. The two earliest schools were established in 1906 and 1914 at Lahore and third in 1924 at Karachi by voluntary organizations (Khatoon, 2003). The effective role of federal government started in the 1980’s when 1981 was declared International Year of the disabled by the United...
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