Speaking to Inform
I. Speaking to inform is one of the most important skills a student can develop. A. Informative speaking is vital to success in business.
1. In one survey, informative speaking was ranked as the most important speech skill in the workplace. 2. In another survey, 62% of the respondents said they used informative speaking “almost constantly.” B. Nor are people in business the only ones who rely on informative speaking. 1. There are endless situations in which people need to inform others. 2. The ability to convey knowledge and understanding will prove valuable to students throughout their lives. C. There are three criteria for effective informative speaking. 1. The information should be communicated clearly.
2. The information should be communicated accurately.
3. The information should be meaningful and interesting to the audience. II. Informative speeches can be classified into four types. A. Some informative speeches are about objects.
1. Speeches about objects describe something that is visible, tangible, and stable in form. a. Objects may have moving parts or be alive.
b. They may include places, structures, animals, even people. 2. Speeches about objects need to be sharply focused.
a. A speaker cannot convey everything about an object in a brief speech. b. It is important to choose a specific purpose that is not too broad to be achieved in the allotted time. 3. Speeches about objects can use a variety of organizational patterns. a. A speech about the history or evolution of an object would be arranged in chronological order. b. A speech about the main features of an object might be arranged in spatial order. c. Most informative speeches about objects will fall into topical order. B. Some informative speeches are about processes.
1. A process is a systematic series of actions that lead to a specific result or product. 2. Speeches about processes explain how something is made, describe how something is done, or convey how something works. 3. There are two kinds of informative speeches about processes. a. One type explains a process so the audience will understand it better. b. The other type explains a process so the audience will be able to perform the process themselves. 4. Speeches about processes often require visual aids. a. Charts are an effective way to outline the steps of a process. b. In some cases, the speaker will need to demonstrate the steps or techniques of the process. 5. Speeches about processes require careful organization. a. Speeches that explain a process step by step are arranged in chronological order. b. Speeches that focus on the major principles or techniques involved in performing the process are usually arranged in topical order. c. Whichever method of organization is used, each step in the process must be clear and easy for the listeners to follow. C. Some informative speeches are about events.
1. Speeches about events can deal with any kind of happening or occurrence. a. The occurrence may be historical in nature – such as the Battle of Little Big Horn or the civil rights movement. b. The occurrence may be in everyday nature – such as modern dance or chronic fatigue syndrome. 2. There are many ways to organize a speech about an event. a. Speeches that recount the history of an event are arranged in chronological order. b. Speeches that analyze the causes and effects of an event are arranged in casual order. c. Speeches that deal with particular elements of an event are usually arranged in topical order. D. Some informative speeches are about concepts.
1. Speeches about concepts convey information concerning beliefs, theories, principles, or other abstract subjects. 2. Speeches about concepts are usually arranged in topical...