Speaking Difficulties of Students

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INTRODUCTION
The fact that English is one of the most important keys that open the road of success in every area of life and it is the only language that truly links the world together can not be denied by anyone. That is why today English is taught as a foreign language in most of the countries and new research is being conducted for better learning and teaching in E.L.T. every day. However, there is no doubt that learning another language is challenging, especially if you do not live in the country where the language is in daily use and you are not exposed to it on a daily basis. Hence, there are some complaints from both students and teachers. No matter how much they understand the lesson, students claim that they can neither use what is taught in real context nor in the classrooms. On the other hand, teachers protest that they do teach nearly all necessary elements of English but they can not manage to make students speak fluently, either there is a problem on the teachers or on the students or on the methods. Speaking has always been a creative and complex process among the other skills for the language learners. Speaking English fluently and accurately and communicating orally in target language is always a grand task for foreign language learners since effective oral communication requires the ability to use the language appropriately in social interactions (Shumin, 1997, p. 8). Also many other researchers point at the same problem like Khan (1998), who states in his study that many studies in this field strongly suggest that good language learners employ a variety of strategies to improve their communicative ability. And speaking strategies are one of the most important aspects in dealing with communication skills as they enhance learners' confidence and fluency. However, there are some important factors affecting the students’ learning how to speak. As Shumin (1997) claims in his study that learning to speak a foreign language means more that than knowing its grammatical and semantic rules. Learners must also acquire the knowledge of how to interact. It is difficult for English learners to speak the target language fluently and appropriately. In order to provide effective guidance in developing competent speakers of English, it is necessary to examine the factors affecting adult learners' oral communication, components underlying speaking proficiency, and specific skills or strategies used in communication. There are many reasons underlying this problema with the speaking skill because as Bresnihan&Stoops (1991) say that "speaking is a difficult activity when learners do not have enough speaking facilities" (p.30). They also add that "although learners may truly want to practice and express their ideas in English, it is hard for them to be able to direct the dialogue with one another and comment immediately on what the other speaker say and it is also hard for teachers to convince them to try" (p. 30). The primary aim of the present study is to find the general reasons of the speaking difficulties that second language learners encounter and suggest some solutions according to the other research made and the findings of the present study. Although the study was conducted at Çağ University in a limited environment, the results point at a general problem that many learners experience during their language learning process. METHODOLOGY

Participants
The subjects of the study are 31 students, 15 of whom attend 2 year Vocational school at Çağ University, which does not require attendance to Prep School while the other 16 are the ones who study at different 4 year departments and who have attended Prep School. All the students are given 4 hours of English lessons each week. The participants were chosen randomly in order to see what difficulties any learner of English encountered regardless of his/her sex, age level, educational background etc. while learning the language. Instrumentation

The questionnaire (adapted...
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