East Meets West
Making the food more palatable to the most discriminating medieval tastes triggered the search of spices of all sorts. •
Pepper, Cinnamon, Cloves, Nutmeg, Ginger
*These spices are indigenous to the east. By means of these spices, the bland taste of meat and fish is accented, while preserving them, in the absence of refrigerator. Pepper - one of the most expensive spices. It is expensive that it could even buy a land, pay taxes, liberate a city and even play dowries. Fernand Braudel – “Everything depended on it, even the dreams of the fifteenth century explorer” Another reason that brought the Spaniards to the East:
Gold, Slaves, Silk, Silver
Gold and Silver not only funded but also expanded the jewelry trade of rare pearls and rubies from far-way India. The inclusion of Asian trade to that of Europe led not only to the flow of economic products and the wealth of Asia to European societies but also to the dynamic interaction of cultures.
This brought to nation states, particularly Portugal and Spain, intensified European rivalries for the fabled source of Oriental products. Because of this, the Pope intervened. The Lusitanian-Hispanic Rivalry in Maritime Discoveries
Portugal - the first country to use innovation in seamanship and boatbuilding.
Henry “The Navigator” – established the first navigational school in the globe at Sagres Point in 1419.
1451-1470 - All the islands of Azores were colonized by the Portuguese.
Because of the Portuguese’s undying zeal, they pursued the dream of reaching the East using a direct all-water route. In fifteenth century, two of their intrepid explorers reached the southernmost end of Africa, and later on, to India, thus winning the race to the wealth and spices of the East.
Spain had its most first truly momentous exploration in modern times.
Paolo Toscanelli – Florentine map maker and discovered the westward sea route to India.
Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo) – made a landfall in Guanahani Island (San Salvador) (Samana Cay ) in October 1492 and two weeks later, on the coast of Cuba.
Spanish Pope from Valencia – issued the Inter Caetera and the Eximiae Devotionis in May 1493, giving Spain the right over any lands discovered by Colombus equivalent to the Portuguese territories found along the western coast of Africa.
The spheres of influence of the two superpowers of the fifteenth century were finally fixed by an imaginary line that are drawn from the north to south poles.
A hundred leagues from Spain. (1 spanish league = 5.57 km)
West of the Cape Verde Islands
The lands lying to the East were reserved for Portugal.
The West lands to Spain.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Partitioned the non-Christian world into two spheres of influence. Papal Bull
Granting the New World to Spain, while Africa and India were reserved only for Portugal.
Shifted the demarcation line 370 leagues farther west, assigning Brazil to Portugal. The Magellan Expedition
Ferdinand Magellan (Fernão de Magalhães)
Born in 1480 in northern Portugal
At the age of 12, he was appointed as the queen’s messenger in the royal court. And learned about navigating ships.
1505 – He sailed to India with Alfonso de Almeida.
1511 – He went on an expedition to conquer Malacca.
His original suggestion of reaching the Maluku (the Spice Islands) by sailing westward was rejected by his King.
Ruy Faleiro – a brilliant cosmographer who convinced him to serve in Spain as he was then not in the good graces of Lisbon court.
1518 – He convinced Charles V that he could find a shorter way to the Maluku by sailing westward via the Americas.
He received the instruction to sail directly to Maluku and bring back priceless spices.
1519 – He started his expedition when he sailed from San Lucar, Spain on board 5 very antiquated ships with a crew of 235 men.
the San Antonio
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