Spanish Civil War

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The Spanish Civil War was the main clash that overwhelmed Spain between July 17, 1936 through April 1, 1939. It began after the attempt to over-throw the government by a group of Spanish Army generals against the Second Spanish Republic, who at the time was under the leadership of President Manuel Azaña. The nationalist rebellion was supported by the traditional Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, monarchists known as Carlist groups, and the Fascist Falange. Following the military rebellion, working-class revolutions extended across the country to help support the Republican government, but they were all viciously put down by the army. The Spanish Civil War ended with the victory of the nationalist forces, the overthrow of the Republican government, and the founding of a dictatorship led by General Francisco Franco. The Nationalists gained the support of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, as well as Portugal. The Soviet Union interfered on the Republican side, although it encouraged factional conflict to the benefit of the Soviet foreign policy, and its actions may have been harmful to the Republican War effort. The United States government offered no official support for the Republican side. American businesses such as Texaco, General Motors, Ford Motors, and The Firestone Tire and Rubber Company greatly helped the Nationalist army with their steady supply of trucks, tires, machine tools, and fuel. The war inflamed international tension in Europe in the lead-up to World War II, and was largely seen as another war between the Communist Soviet Union and Fascist states Italy and Germany. Tank warfare tactics and the terror bombing of cities from the air were features of the Spanish Civil War which played a significant part in the later general European war. “The Spanish Civil War has been called "the first media war", with quite a few writers and journalists covering it wanting their work "to support the cause".(MacSwan). Foreign journalists and writers covering it included Ernest Hemingway, Martha Gellhorn, George Orwell and Robert Capa. Like most international observers, they tended to support the Republicans, with some such as Orwell participating directly in the fighting.”(Newsinger) This war was one of the first to have journalist covering it. One journalist, George Orwell, went into depth on the description of the war and how the country was. Orwell states, ”…armed workers, rifles on their shoulders, but wearing their civilian clothes. Perhaps 30 percent of the males on the Ramblas were carrying rifles, though there were no police, and no regular military in uniforms... The fact that all these armed men walked about, marched and drove in their ordinary clothes made the thing only more impressive as a display of the power of the factory workers. The anarchists, recognizable by badges and insignia in red and black, were obviously in overwhelming numbers.” Like most civil wars, the Spanish Civil War became famous for the passion and political division it encouraged, and for violence committed on both sides of the conflict. The Spanish Civil War often put family members, neighbors, and friends against each other. Apart from the fighters, many civilians were killed for their political or religious views by both sides, and after the war ended in 1939, Republicans were mistreated by the triumphant Nationalists. There were many events leading up to the Spanish Civil War. Such events were the Constitution of 1931, 1933 election, the rising tensions and political violence, Azana becoming president, and the murder of Calvo Sotelo. The Constitution of 1931 was the beginning of the Second Spanish Republic and was effective 1931-1939. The Constitution of 1931 contained numerous requirements of Spain’s place within the community of nations and international affairs. It also separated the church and the state; stating that the government can interfere with church matters. Anti-Catholics started to...
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