Spanish and Italian Borrowings to the English Language

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Romanic languages, group of languages belonging to the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. They are spoken by about 670 million people in many parts of the world. Among the more important Romanic languages are Catalan, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, and Spanish. My report is particularly about Italian and Spanish borrowings to the English language. Spanish borrowings appeared in English in 16 century. Historic circumstances which influenced on these borrowings are associated with some geographic discoveries at that time. There was a colonization of the South and North America by the Spanish. So the close cooperation with Spain contributed to the developing of borrowings from Spanish into English language. In 16 century close political and economic ties of England with Spain and of Spain with France led to borrowings both directly from Spanish and through the French language. In the beginning of the 16th century there were many Spaniards in England due to dynastic relations between England and Spain. So England inherited many Spanish words which related to Spanish manners. Many Spanish words have come to us from three primary sources: many of them entered American English in the days of Mexican and/or Spanish cowboys working in what is now the U.S. Southwest. Some words were borrowed with the Spanish culture-dances and musicals instruments. Words of Caribbean origin entered English by way of trade. The other major source is the names of foods whose names have no English equivalent, as the intermingling of cultures has expanded our diets as well as our vocabulary. There are the following semantic groups:

a) trade terms: cargo- груз, embargo- запрещение, contraband-контрабанда; b) names of dances and musical instruments: tango, rumba, habanera, guitar; c) names of vegetables and fruit: banana, cocoa , chocolate, cigar, cork - пробка, кора пробкового дерева, potato, tobacco, tomato. All of these were the objects of trade. They were...
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