Spanish American War, Bay of Pigs, and Cuban Missile Crisis

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The Spanish American War

On April 25, 1898, the United States became concerned in a war with Spain and began an eight-month war amid the United States and Spain called the Spanish-American War. This action was motivated by Spain’s attack on the Battleship Maine in Havana port on February 15, 1898. The United States acted based on the Monroe Doctrine and consideration for the Cuban’s fight for liberty.

The Monroe Doctrine was written in 1823, and declared that: The Americas were not destined for future colonization, and to deem any attempt to take possession of the Americas, or anything in our Hemisphere to be an act against our tranquility and security. Spain’s effort to overcome Cuba was measured to be in infringement of the Monroe Doctrine, and was one reason for declaring war on Spain. Another motive to become caught up in the clash was that the United States had business interest in the area. U.S. citizens also felt compassion for the Cubans’ fight for freedom.

In June, the Marines captured Guantanamo Bay and 17,000 troops landed at Siboney and Daiquiri. However, Spanish military had more troops in Cuba than Cuba and the United States could muster. The passage of the Mobilization Act of April 22, allowing up to 125,000 volunteers to battle, strengthened the troops. Patriotism brought the patriots to sign up. They were prepared to protect Cuba and their own interests.

On July 1, 1898, U.S. troops assaulted the San Juan heights. The first few fights by Lt. Col. Theodore Roosevelt, and Brigadier General Jacob Kent caused the yield of 23,500 troops by the Spanish. Later, Major General Nelson Mile’s forces landed near Ponce and hiked to San Juan with no trouble.

As a result of the Spanish-American War, Spain lost its control of Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, Midway Island, and other islands. The U.S. also became allies with Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. The Spanish-American War ended with the signing of the Treaty...
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