1. space: -outer space = region beyond earth
2. final: -last, ultimate, no more frontier beyond this
3. frontier: -an outer limit, especially one in which the opportunities for research and development have not been exploited 4. History of space exploration: simple overview of western countries – http://www.spacekids.co.uk/spacehistory/ includes China’s endeavors – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_space_exploration 5. Can space be considered an unexplored region if…
a. man has been observing the sky since before recorded history? b. man has been thinking of exploring it since the 17th century?啟動螢幕閱讀器 共用設定
c. the first man-made vehicle flew 100 km outside earth in 1942? d. the first human space flight in 1961?
e. the Voyager I and II space craft were launched?
f. man put a space station into orbit?
g. even ordinary people like singer Sarah Brightman can pay to fly into space? h. we can be buried in space?
-What do we know about space?
-What don’t we know about it?
-Is it our next or our final frontier?
-Is Antarctica the final frontier? Are the oceans our final frontier? Is the earth’s core our final frontier? Is time our final frontier? Is death our final frontier? I don’t think the opposition needs to say what is the final frontier, only that space isn’t.
Negative side arguments
1) Definition on final, frontier, tangible or intangible frontier 2) Rebutt on opposite side definition, like Frontier IS NOT outer boundaries a : a region that forms the margin of settled or developed territory b : the farthermost limits of knowledge or achievement in a particular subject --this will be our focus c : a line of division between different or opposed things
d : a new field for exploitative or developmental activity
3)is = must be? other possibilties
4)if opposite side implies final = only, one of the final--? rebutt on definitions of final 4)No need to discuss what WILL BE the final frontier
1)State other possibilites of FINAL FRONTIER eg earth crust, ocean 2) Bring out other possibilities for intangible frontiers like imagination, mind, thoughts, time, death, afterlife, parallel universe 3) new field for exploitative or developmental activity? the farthermost limits of knowledge or achievement in a particular subject --this will be our focus? 4) mind--kots of philosophiser try to explore how mind works--> no conclusion can we further explore beyond mind?
think out of box--> are we bounded by our mind ourselves? are there thoughts beyond mind? parallel universe-- beyond space, existence of another universe ie go beyond space, another space time-- einstein-- go beyond time to future? to the past?
not yet DEVELOPED a WAY, NOT YET EXPLORED
5) REBUTTALS: AFFIRMATIVE: strong countries like usa, china, USSR in the past put lots of resources to explore--> no more frontiers more important than space OPPOSITE: only proves mankind are capable to start exploring out of earth--> no one yet has ability and capability to find a way to prove how imagination, mind, parallel universe works ie. new field MAY BE farthermost limit of knowledge thats why SPACE is NOT final becuase there can be lots othere possibilities to be final
no one proves the existence of parallel universe, mind etc
→ no one proves
not equal to not existing
in the past no one can prove the existence of other planets
only now human beings are able to explore space → proves existence hence parallel universe etc can be final frontier
people have already explored part of space--> able to go beyond space--> X final grontier while death X timeX breakthrough--> boundaries still new to be discovered and developed new knowledge compare--> how can we say space is the furthermost knowledge? then how can we say it is final frontier>
if affirmative said space...