South Africa

Topics: South Africa, Africa, African Union Pages: 40 (13414 words) Published: April 13, 2013
This article is about the modern country. For other uses, see South Africa (disambiguation).

Republic of South Africa[show]

FlagCoat of arms
Motto: "!ke e: ǀxarra ǁke" (ǀXam)
"Unity In Diversity"
Anthem: National anthem of South Africa

Pretoria (executive)
Bloemfontein (judicial)
Cape Town (legislative)
Largest cityJohannesburg (2006)[2]
Official languages
11 languages[3][show]
Ethnic groups ([Note 1][4][5]:21)
79.2% Black African
8.9% Coloured
8.9% White
2.5% Indian or Asian
0.5% other
DemonymSouth African
GovernmentConstitutional parliamentary republic
- PresidentJacob Zuma
- Deputy PresidentKgalema Motlanthe
- NCOP ChairmanM. J. Mahlangu
- Speaker of the National AssemblyMax Sisulu
- Chief JusticeMogoeng Mogoeng
- Upper houseNational Council of Provinces
- Lower houseNational Assembly
Independence from the United Kingdom
- Union31 May 1910
- Statute of Westminster11 December 1931
- Republic31 May 1961
- Total1,221,037 km2 (25th)
471,443 sq mi
- Water (%)negligible
- 2011 census51,770,560[5]:18
- Density42.4/km2 (169th)
109.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP)2012 estimate
- Total$578.640 billion[6]
- Per capita$11,302[6] (105[7])
GDP (nominal)2012 estimate
- Total$390.919 billion[6]
- Per capita$7,635[6]
Gini (2009)63.1[8]
very high · 2nd
HDI (2011) 0.619
medium · 123rd
CurrencySouth African rand (ZAR)
Time zoneSAST (UTC+2)
Drives on theleft
Calling code+27
ISO 3166 codeZA
Coordinates: 30°S 25°E
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is a country located at the southern tip of Africa. It is divided into nine provinces and has 2,798 kilometres (1,739 mi) of coastline.[9][10][11] To the north lie the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana and Zimbabwe; to the east are Mozambique and Swaziland; while Lesotho is an enclave surrounded by South African territory.[12] South Africa is the 25th largest country in the world by area and the 24th most populous country with over 51 million people. South Africa is a multi-ethnic nation and has diverse cultures and languages. Eleven official languages are recognised in the constitution.[11] Two of these languages are of European origin: English and Afrikaans, a language which originated mainly from Dutch that is spoken by the majority of white and Coloured South Africans. Though English is commonly used in public and commercial life, it is only the fifth most-spoken home language.[11] All ethnic and language groups have political representation in the country's constitutional democracy comprising a parliamentary republic; unlike most parliamentary republics, the positions of head of state and head of government are merged in a parliament-dependent President. About 80% of the South African population is of black African ancestry,[5]:21 divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, nine of which have official status.[11] South Africa also contains the largest communities of European, Asian, and racially mixed ancestry in Africa. South Africa is ranked as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank.[13] It has the largest economy in Africa, and the 28th-largest in the world.[14] By purchasing power parity, South Africa has the 5th highest per capita income in Africa. It is considered a newly industrialised country. However, about a quarter of the population is unemployed[15] and lives on less than US $1.25 a day.[16] Contents [hide]

1 History
1.1 Prehistoric finds
1.2 Colonization
1.3 Republic
2 Geography
2.1 Climate
2.2 Biodiversity
2.2.1 Animals
2.2.2 Fungi
2.2.3 Plants
2.3 Conservation issues
3 Politics
3.1 Law
3.2 Foreign relations
3.3 Human rights
3.4 Military
4 Provinces
5 Economy
5.1 Labour market
5.2 Science and technology
6 Demographics
6.1 Religion
6.2 Languages
6.3 Largest cities
7 Culture
7.1 Arts
7.2 Popular...
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