1.History and heritage
** A nation’s dream of unity and common purpose now capable of realization 1.1 The earliest people
-The earliest representatives of South Africa's diversity – at least the earliest we can name – were the San and Khoekhoe peoples -Both were resident in the southern tip of the continent for thousands of years -The hunter-gatherer San ranged widely over the area
-The pastoral Khoekhoe lived in those comparatively well-watered areas with grazing -However, the Khoekhoe have disappeared due to diseases from Europeans and some straightforward extermination -The Thulamela site in the northern Kruger National Park is estimated to have been first occupied in the 13th century. -The ruins of Mapungubwe are the remains of a large trading settlement thought to stretch back to the 12th century
1.2 Colonial expansion
-Settler and slaves started to exist when Dutch East India Company built a fort and a vegetable garden for the benefit of ships on the trade routes in the east. -A mutual animosity developed between the settlers and the Khoekhoe and the growing suspicion was becoming a threat to them -By the time Jan van Riebeeck , Dutch colonist, left the Cape of Good Hope in 1662, 250 white people lived in what was beginning to look like a developing colony. -Later governors of the Cape Colony encouraged immigration
-The descendants of some of the Khoisan, who are slaves from other parts in Africa and the East, and the white colonists formed the basis of the mixed-race group -The slaves from the East brought to South Africa their religion of Islam -By the second half of the 18th century, the colonists – mainly of Dutch, German and French Huguenot stock – had begun to lose their sense of identification with Europe >>>> The Afrikaner nation was coming into being.
-The British took the Cape over from the Dutch in 1795.
-Seven years later, the colony was returned to the Dutch government, only to come under British rule again in 1806, recaptured because of the alliance between Holland and Napoleon. -An emigration north and east of about 12 000 discontented Afrikaner farmers, or Boers, were determined to live independently of colonial rule and what they saw as unacceptable racial egalitarianism -The Boers won victory at the Battle of Blood River
-Two Boer republics were formed: the central Orange Free State and South African Republic to the north of Port Natal (later Durban) -By the mid-1800s, the tiny refreshment post at the Cape of Good Hope had grown into an area of white settlement that stretched over virtually all of what is today South Africa. -One territory that was to retain independence was the mountain fastness where King Moshoeshoe had forged the Basotho nation (later Lesotho) by offering refuge to tribes fleeing the mfecane. This country has never been a part of South Africa -The Cape Colony was granted representative legislature in 1853 and self-government in 1872. -Rival claims by the Orange Free State, the ZAR and Nicholas Waterboer, chief of the West Griquas – a community of mixed race – were defeated and the area was incorporated into the Cape Colony in 1880. -The colony had taken tentative steps towards political equality among the races, based on economic qualifications, non-racial in theory but excluded the vast majority of African and coloured people in practice. -The late 19th century was an area of aggressive colonial expansion, and the Zulus were bound to come under pressure. -The Zulu were defeated in the following year, leading to Zululand eventually being incorporated into Natal in 1897
1.3 Union and the ANC
-When the Union of South Africa came into being on 31 May 1910, the only province with a non-racial franchise was the Cape, and blacks were barred from being members of parliament. -The South African Party, a merging of the previous Afrikaner parties, held power under the premiership of...