University of Phoenix
Motivational Processes in Human Psychology
Dr. Kimberly Armstead
February 19, 2012
Sources of Motivation
“To be motivated is to be moved into action or to decide upon a change in action,” Arthur Schopenhauer – Philosopher (1841-1960). People find motivation from many sources. There is a definition for motivation, but for every individual, this definition is usually personalized. There is a palpable relationship between behavior and motivation. The behavior of a person usually reveals motivations. As the title of this paper states, some sources of motivation will be examined along with the concept and definition of motivation. The term motivation refers to processes that elicit, control, and sustain behaviors. Motivation is a need to relieve pain and increase pleasure. Basic needs like eating and sleep would be in the pain versus pleasure motivation. Motivation may be associated to less apparent ideas such as avoiding human mortality, morality, selfishness, and altruism. Motivation is distinct from emotions but can be related (Seligman, Martin E.P., 1990). Motivation has three components: activation, persistence, and intensity. Activation is the decision to initiate behavior toward a goal. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal. This persistence is continued regardless of obstacles. Intensity is concentration and energy that is applied to the acquisition or pursuit of the goal (Deckers, Lambert. 2010). Two types of motivation are extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is action required to attain a goal or outcome. Extrinsic motivations are external from the individual and are based on rewards. Praise, money, and social recognition such as rewards are examples. In a Social Psychology study, children who expected a reward and were rewarded for drawing pictures, showed less interest in the drawing materials than children not expecting a reward....