Innovation is a foundation of social change. It is the process of developing new methods or products to better facilitate how society operates. Whether it is a fundamental change, such as the internet, or incremental change, such as revisions to existing programs, innovations encompass sociocultural dimensions, which have the ability to manifest multifaceted and/or erratic ramifications. In turn, the intricate dynamics of innovation is what aids in its dismissal or implementation within society. Progression is crucial in order for society to develop, as well as prosper towards the future. Thus, what are the sources of innovation? This paper will depict innovation and its sources, as well as elucidate how the process of innovation is correlated with the progress of society, its' necessity, as well as how innovation diffuses throughout the world. Innovation
Harper & Leicht (2011) suggests, "Innovative action involves a linkage or fusion of two of more elements that have not been previously joined in just this fashion, so that the result is a qualitatively distinct whole" (pg. 232). Innovations are the outcome of collective ideas, or the missing element in everyday activities. The simple of act of independent brainstorming can conjure an idea that will revolutionize society. The Pillow Pet, for example, accumulated millions of dollars, after being exposed to the public. Impact Lab (2011) stated, "The idea for Pillow Pets dawned on Jennifer Telfer after watching her young sons smash down their stuffed animals in order to sleep on them like a pillow. So she set about creating stuffed animals that unfolded into plush pillows" (par. 6). Innovative ideas should gratify a particular need, as well as be priced so that everyday consumers can generally afford the product. Thus, let us explore the sources of innovation.
Sources of Innovation
The foundation of innovation habitually materializes through a process. Harper & Leicht (2011) stated innovation is a "four-phase process:
1. Perception of a problem, stimulated by unfulfilled needs and wants.
2. Setting the stage, in which a person assembles all the elements of a solution.
3. An act of insight, in which a new configuration of meaning appears.
4. Critical revision, in which an innovation is made workable in some context" (pg. 233). An individual foresees a need of society and contemplates how to rectify that need through a series of solutions. Once a person perceives a social problem, formulates a solution, and considers methods to repair the dilemma, the next phase is to think devise a system to make the product work. This is the most difficult aspect of the innovation process. While the innovative idea may be present, to design and allow the product to function properly may be difficult.
Peter Drucker, an authority on innovation, suggests that there are seven sources for innovative prospects: the unexpected, incongruity, innovation based on process need, changes in industry or market structure, demographics, changes in perception, mood, and meaning, and new knowledge (Hofstrand, 2010). The unexpected advancement refers to an unforeseen success or result from the original objective. A great example of this success generates from Pavlov's experiment with his dog's digestion. His original experiment was to explore his pets' saliva production; however, the dogs' reaction to specific stimuli led Pavlov to the development of classical conditioning.
Hofstrand (2010) states incongruity is "a discrepancy between reality and what everyone assumes it to be, or between what is and what ought to be, can create an innovative opportunity" (par. 4). Incongruity refers to something that is not necessarily needed; however, it is desirable. Robert Swaim (2011) states, " The inception of the "mini" steel mill is an example of successfully...