WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT: SOUR GRAPE ICE CREAM
Ice cream is just ice, fat and air; the way these three main ingredients interact determines the ice cream quality. Color, texture and taste are the main quality factors for ice cream. To optimize these it is particularly important to control process parameters including the temperature and time of heating and cooling the mixture. Over-heating and slow cooling causes changes to the flavor and color of the milk, whereas under-heating may lead to survival of undesirable micro-organisms, risking food poisoning from the product.
The rate at which ice cream freezes can greatly affect final product texture by determining the size of the ice crystals in the product. It is desirable to have much smaller ice crystals and lower sized fat globules and air cells in its structure. To achieve this rapid heat transfer rates are needed.
The major storage requirement for the ice cream is to minimize the number of times and the duration the ice cream is melted and frozen again that causes the development of grittiness in the product. Frozen dessert manufacturers face the challenge of delivering everybody's favorite frozen treats with consistent taste, texture and quality. The additives, which act as emulsifiers and stabilizers, are used to prevent heat shock and the formation of ice crystals during the production process. The most common additives are guar gum, extracted from the guar bush, and carrageenan, derived from sea kelp or Irish moss. Ice cream flavors have come a long way from the standard vanilla, strawberry, and chocolate. In an ever-expanding array of combinations, fruit purees and extracts, cocoa powder, nuts, cookie pieces, and cookie dough are blended into the ice cream mixture. Air is added to ice cream to improve its ability to absorb flavorings and to facilitate serving. Without air, ice cream becomes heavy and soggy. On the other hand, too much...