Sopranos

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Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto’s contributions and struggles to develop constitution and democracy…

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (5 January 1928 – 4 April 1979) was a Pakistani politician and statesman who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1973 to 1977, and prior to that as the 4th President of Pakistan from 1971 to 1973. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto was educated at the University of Southern California, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, after which he trained as a barrister at Lincoln's Inn. Bhutto was the founder of the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP)— the largest and most influential political party in Pakistan— and served as its chairman until his execution in 1979. His eldest daughter, Benazir Bhutto, would also serve as Prime minister, while his son Murtaza Bhutto, served as member of Parliament of Pakistan. He was noted for his progressive economic initiatives, industrialization, education, energy and foreign policy, and his intellectualism. In addition to national security issues, Bhutto promoted his policies on the nationalization, health care, and social reforms. He entered national politics as one of President Iskander Mirza's cabinet members, before being assigned several ministries during President Ayub Khan's military rule from 1958. Appointed Foreign Minister in 1963. After the Tashkent Agreement, Bhutto fell out with Ayub and resigned. He founded the PPP in 1967, contesting general elections held by President Yahya Khan in 1970. In the 1970 elections, the Awami League in East Pakistan won an absolute majority of all seats in Pakistan, while Bhutto won the majority of seats in West Pakistan. While the Yahya Khan regime was hesitantly willing to hand over power to the Awami League, Bhutto insisted that the PPP had to be granted key portfolios in a power sharing agreement. The Awami League's 6 points were a key issue, and eventually negotiations between the Awami League, the PPP and the Army broke down. A military crackdown on March 26th, 1971 led to the secession of Bangladesh, and Pakistan losing the war against Bangladesh-allied India in 1971. Bhutto was handed over the presidency in December 1971 and emergency rule was imposed. On assuming power on December 20, 1971, Bhutto promised to make a new Pakistan out of the West Wing and to restore national confidence. He conveniently laid the entire blame for the 1971 war and Pakistan's defeat on Yahya Khan and his junta. Asserting the principle of civilian leadership, Bhutto introduced a new constitution with a modified parliamentary and federal system. He attempted to control and reform the civil service and took steps to revitalize a stagnant economy and ameliorate conditions for the poor under the banner of Islamic socialism. Bhutto's most visible success, however, was in the international arena, where he employed his diplomatic skills. He negotiated a satisfactory peace settlement with India in 1972, built new links between Pakistan and the oil-exporting Islamic countries to the west, and generally was effective in repairing Pakistan's image in the aftermath of the war. Bhutto's program appeared to be laudable but fell short in performance. His near-monopoly of decision-making power prevented democratic institutions from taking root, and his overreaching ambitions managed in time to antagonize all but his closest friends. The PPP manifesto was couched in socialist terms. When Bhutto issued the Economic Reform Order on January 3, 1972, banking and insurance institutions were nationalized, and seventy other industrial enterprises were taken over by the government. The Ministry of Production, which incorporated the Board of Industrial Management, was established to oversee industry. Investment in the public sector increased substantially, and Bhutto maneuvered to break the power of the approximately twenty elite families who had dominated the nation's economy during the Ayub Khan period. Trade unions were...
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