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AP US Period 6 Review Sheets 2010
Chapter 26-The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution

Reservation System
-treaties at Fort Laramie and Fort Atkinson marked beginnings of reservation system in the West. They established boundaries for the territory of each tribe. - In 1860s government intensified this policy and herded the Indians into smaller confines, famous was the “Great Sioux reservation” in Dakota territory. Important Battles

Important Massacres
- Sand Creek, Colorado, in 1864 Colonel J.M. Chivington’s militia massacred 400 Indians who thought that they had been promised immunity - In 1866 a Sioux war party attempting to block construction of Bozeman Trail to Montana goldfields ambushed Captain William J. Fetterman’s command of soldiers and civilians in Wyoming’s Bighorn Mountains - In 1884 the government outlawed the sacred Sun Dance. When “Ghost Dance” spread to the Dakota Sioux the army stamped it out in 1890 at Battle of Wounded Knee The Black Hills

- In 1874 Custer led a “scientific” expedition into Black Hills of South Dakota (part of Sioux reservation) and announced that he had discovered gold. - Enraged Sioux began to leave the reservation

- Custer’s Seventh Cavalry set out to suppress the Indians and to return them to the reservation. They attacked 2,500 well-armed warriors camped along the Little Bighorn River in Montana. The “White Chief with Yellow Hair” and 264 officers and men were completely wiped out in 1876. Other Tribes

- Apache tribes of Arizona and New Mexico were hardest to subdue. Led by Geronimo they were pursued into Mexico. Apaches eventually surrendered. They became successful farmers in Oklahoma. - Indians were “tamed” by railroads which shot right through the heart of the West. U.S. could bring troops and settlers quickly. Also ruined by diseases and firewater. Extermination of Buffalo destroyed their way of life. Inspiring Literary Works

- Helen Hunt Jackson was a Massachusetts writer of children’s literature published A Century of Dishonor. It chronicled the sorry record of government ruthlessness and chicanery in dealing with the Indians. Ramona inspired further sympathy for the California Indians - In 1890 the frontier line was closed inspiring one of the most influental essays ever written about American history—Frederick Jackson Turner’s “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” in 1893. - The Coin’s Financial School (1894) was written by William Hope Harvey and showed how the little professor overwhelmed the bankers and professors of economics with his brilliant arguments on behalf of free silver. Assimilation of Indians

- Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 dissolved many tribes as legal entities. It set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If Indians behaved themselves like “good white settlers” then they would get full title to their holdings, as well as citizenship, in 25 years. Full citizenship was granted to all Indians in 1924. Fifty-Niners and Helldorados

- In 1858 “fifty-niners” or “Pike’s Peakers” rushed west to rip at the ramparts of the Rockies. However, there were more miners than minerals. - Lucky strikes drew frantic miners in boomtowns, known as “Helldorados” - A spectacular feeder of the new slaughter-houses was the “Long Drive.” The Frontier

- Homestead Act of 1862 allowed a settler to aquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years. They would only have to pay a fee of $30. However many were not successful on their farms because of extreme droughts. Corporations would send “dummy” homesteaders(employees bribed with cash or beer) to grab the best properties containing timber, minerals, and oil. - New technique of “dry farming” took root on plains. It included frequent shallow cultivation but over time contributed to the “Dust Bowl” several years later. - Barbed wire invented by Joseph F. Glidden solved the problem of how...
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