Marie-Sophie Germain was born on April 1, 1776 and passed away on June 27, 1831. She was an important French mathematician, and a brilliant woman who lived during the French Revolution. Germain was born to a middle-class merchant family in Paris, France, and began studying mathematics at age thirteen, despite her parents' strong attempts to dissuade her from engaging in a 'men's profession'. Several years later, she managed to get some lecture notes from several courses at a well known school, École Polytechnique, a school which did not admit women. Germain was particularly interested in Joseph-Louis Lagrange's teachings and submitted papers and assignments under the pseudonym "Monsieur Le Blanc", a former student of Lagrange's. Lagrange was so impressed by the paper that he asked to meet Le Blanc, and Germain was forced to reveal her identity to him. Lagrange apparently considered her a talented mathematician and became her mentor. While Napoleon was invading Prussia in 1806, she convinced some high ranking Generals to personally protect the great Mathematician, Carl Friedrich Gauss. He later found out what she had done for him, and accepted her as student. In 1811 Germain entered the French Academy of Sciences' contest. After failing twice she finally won in 1816, thus bringing her into the ranks of great mathematicians. She became the first female to attend sessions at the French Academy of Sciences, which open the doors for many women after her. She and her friend Gauss would discovery and write some incredible important Mathematical formulas which are still taught today.

...Secret Mathematician: SophieGermain
Please Don't Copy This Exactly! For Information Only.
SophieGermain, born to wealthy parents and coming of age during the French Revolution turned to the study of mathematics as a way to cure her boredom. She quickly became a sneaky mathematician hiding her studies first from her parent’s and later from the mentors she most admired and respected. She had to pose as a male to be taken seriously in her studies. As Sophie grew older and fell in love with mathematics, she fought to be recognized as the mathematician she rightly was. Even after her death Sophie was honored, having both a school and street named for her.
Born on April 1st, 1776 in Paris, France, SophieGermain was the middle child of three girls. Her father, a wealthy Parisian silk merchant, and her mother both believed education of girls should be limited to literature and writing (Cooney, 38). Since the French Revolution occurred during her childhood Germain spent much of her time indoors. Sophie often retreated to her father’s library to read to fight off her boredom (Sophie par. 1). By the age of 13, Germain had already stumbled across stories of Archimedes and his mathematical insights. Though her parents strongly forbade her...

...later mathematicians, especially Girolama Saccheri, tried to out do the work of Euclid but all eventually gave up when they realized that his theories were flawless due to his extensive proofs.
He even adventured into new branches of mathematics and science. First, he published his book, Optiks, which discussed perspective and how people view the world through their eyes. His influence in this realm, although overlooked by most, is extremely influential. He also studied catoptrics, or the mathematical functions of mirrors. He again applied deductive reasoning to understand the principles behind mirrors. He also became an important figure in the study of data, conics, and ratios through his work in arithmetic and geometry.
Euclid’s influence on modern mathematics and society are immeasurable. For students studying geometry worldwide, his influence is obvious. As the renowned Father of Geometry, Euclid created the foundation for the field in his Elements. He created a foundation which other mathematicians built off of for the next 2000 years. Without his work, the work of scientists and mathematicians, such as Ptolemy, Brahmagupta, Isaac Newton, Leonhard Euler, and Carl Friedrich Gauss, would not have been possible. Deductive reasoning strategies would also be much less common and popular. Therefore, geometry students would never have the opportunity to use proofs to come to conclusions about various geometric shapes...

...the stage for amazing inroads in math and science when others built upon the groundwork he created.
Newton made many discoveries in areas related to optics, the theory of finite differences, and innovative applications in geometry. Based on his very unique work, he received a great deal of acclaim. This led to him being named Lucasian Professor of Mathematics in 1669. Traditionally, a person who was awarded such a position had to become a priest. Newton was given an exemption from that rule.
René Descartes (1596-1650)
Born: March 31, 1596, in La Haye en Touraine, Kingdom of France
Died: Feb 11, 1650 (at age 53), in Stockholm, Swedish Empire
Nationality: French
Famous For: Developing the Cartesian coordinate system
Contribution to mathematics
Descartes developed Cartesian (analytical) geometry, which is the use of algebra to examine geometric properties. He created an empirical comprehension of rainbows, along with proposing a naturalistic account for the solar system’s formation. This led Pope Alexander VII to add his works to the List of Prohibited Books.
Born: c. 287 BC in Syracuse, Sicily
Died: c. 212 BC (at about age 75) in Syracuse, Sicily
Nationality: Greek
Famous For: Accurate calculation for pi
Archimedes (c. 287 –...

...Henri Poincare
(1854-1912)
“If nature were not beautiful, it would not be worth knowing, and if nature were not worth knowing, it would not be worth living.” –Henri Poincare
Jules Henri Poincare was a famous Frenchmathematician born in Nancy, France on April 29, 1854. He is known for contributing to works in pure and applied mathematics, mathematical physics, as well as celestial mathematics. He founded the mathematical theory of dynamical systems, or qualitative dynamics and formulated the Poincare conjecture that is one of the most famous mathematical problems today. Some people even credit him as a co-discover of the theory of relativity along with Einstein and Lorenz.
In 1899 Poincare won the competition that King Oscar (of Sweden) had stated where he wanted someone to determine the stability of the solar system. From this Poincare taking into account Newton’s law of gravitation found that mathematical chaos was hidden in Newton’s equation for three or more bodies. From his calculations and observation he was able to describe basic properties of deterministic chaos which refers to the world of dynamics.
Poincare’s work in qualitative methods led him to the study of topology, where he created most of the key concepts this includes the fundamental group and basic ideas homology theory. This culminated with his Poincare conjecture statement in 1904.
Poincare was very important to the advancement in mathematics, but sadly died before...

...Late 1800s to 1907
The were many art movements within this time period. I am going to show you some of well known one and unknown artist.
Impressionism
In 1874, a group of artists called the Anonymous Society of Painters, Sculptors, Printmakers, etc. organized an exhibition in Paris that launched the movement called Impressionism. Its founding members included Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Camille Pissarro, among others. Impressionism was a movement that occurred in both art and poetry. It was a time in which the people broke from the traditional standards or styles. They wanted to bring new ways of expressing their ideas to their societies. These ideas were seen through subjects of interest, such as art and poetry. Claude Monet’s Woman with a Parasol: Madame Monet and Her Son and William Butler Yeats’s “The Wild Swans at Coole” both characterize important aspects of the Impressionist Age.
The word “impressionism” is mostly associated with the artistic movement. The first time this term was used with reference to art was when one writer was speaking of a painting by Claude Monet, called Impression: Sunrise (1872, Musee Marmottan, Paris). The term was first officially used in 1877 (“Impressionism”). The artists of this movement were characterized as impressionists because of their simplified works (“Monet, Claude Oscar”). They were part of a group in which the artists shared similar styles and techniques between 1867 and 1886. Some of the important artists...

... Hair Couture HYPERLINK http//www.haircouture-co.com www.haircouture-co.com Hair Couture HYPERLINK http//www.haircouture-co.com www.haircouture-co.com Hair Couture www.haircouture-co.com Hair Couture HYPERLINK http//www.haircouture-co.com www.haircouture-co.com Hair Couture HYPERLINK http//www.haircouture-co.com www.haircouture-co.com Hair Couture HYPERLINK http//www.haircouture-co.com www.haircouture-co.com Hair Couture HYPERLINK http//www.haircouture-co.com www.haircouture-co.com Instructions Labels should print out 8.5x1.65 and will fit a standard water bottle. To replace the images Delete the image you wish to replace. Select Insert Picture From File. Select the image youd like on your water bottle and choose OK. Select the newly imported image and scale it to the size you need. Double click on the image, choose the picture tab, and select the image that says in front of text. You can then move the image to where you need. Repeat the steps for other images. Copy and paste for the remaining labels. Good Luck E3v
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...Allen Alemania
Period 5
ELA10B
Mr. Tanguay
08/04/2014
The Most Dangerous Game
1. Rainsford is uncompassionate, this is seen when he’s talking to Whitney. “‘Don’t talk rot, Whitney.’ Said Rainsford. ‘You’re a big game hunter not a philosopher. Who cares how a jaguar feels’ ”.This shows how he’s uncompassionate because he takes no account for how the animals feel. It’s all about the sport. He is also a very proud person. This is seen when he boasts about his sport, hunting, and how it’s the best sport in the word. Rainsford is also courageous. This is seen when he is not deterred by the superstition that surrounds Ship Trap Island. He could also be perceived as strong when he swims to the shore after he is thrown off the boat. This is seen as strong because such a feat would be seen as impossible in open waters.
2. One way the author foreshadows that something is going to happen was the name of the island. The name ‘Ship-Trap Island’ implies that the ship might crash or that they might become stranded on the island. The superstition that surrounds the island also foreshadows that something bad may happen. If there were enough incidents to create a whole superstition about the island then the problem must reoccur fairly often. If it happens often then what’s there to say that it won’t happen to Rainsford. You could also take the sudden change of emotion from Rainsford as foreshadowing. This is seen when he has a ‘mental chill; a sort of sudden dread’ as they...

...Mathematicians of the 17th Century
Jacob Bernoulli (also known as James or Jacques) (27 December 1654/6 January 1655 – 16 August 1705) was one of the many prominent mathematicians in the Bernoulli family.
He became familiar with calculus through a correspondence with Gottfried Leibniz, then collaborated with his brother Johann on various applications, notably publishing papers ontranscendental curves (1696) and isoperimetry(1700, 1701). In 1690, Jacob Bernoulli became the first person to develop the technique for solving separable differential equations.
Upon returning to Basel in 1682, he founded a school for mathematics and the sciences. He was appointed professor of mathematics at theUniversity of Basel in 1687, remaining in this position for the rest of his life.
Jacob Bernoulli is best known for the work Ars Conjectandi (The Art of Conjecture), published eight years after his death in 1713 by his nephew Nicholas. In this work, he described the known results in probability theory and in enumeration, often providing alternative proofs of known results. This work also includes the application of probability theory to games of chance and his introduction of the theorem known as the law of large numbers. The terms Bernoulli trial and Bernoulli numbers result from this work. The lunar crater Bernoulli is also named after him jointly with his brother Johann.
John Craig (1663 – October 11, 1731) was...

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