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Sophie Germain, born to wealthy parents and coming of age during the French Revolution turned to the study of mathematics as a way to cure her boredom. She quickly became a sneaky mathematician hiding her studies first from her parent’s and later from the mentors she most admired and respected. She had to pose as a male to be taken seriously in her studies. As Sophie grew older and fell in love with mathematics, she fought to be recognized as the mathematician she rightly was. Even after her death Sophie was honored, having both a school and street named for her. Born on April 1st, 1776 in Paris, France, Sophie Germain was the middle child of three girls. Her father, a wealthy Parisian silk merchant, and her mother both believed education of girls should be limited to literature and writing (Cooney, 38). Since the French Revolution occurred during her childhood Germain spent much of her time indoors. Sophie often retreated to her father’s library to read to fight off her boredom (Sophie par. 1). By the age of 13, Germain had already stumbled across stories of Archimedes and his mathematical insights. Though her parents strongly forbade her studies of mathematics, she continued to study math by stolen candles’ light. As women were not generally allowed to attend university, Germaine advanced her mathematical studies by borrowing lecture notes from both male friends who attended the Ecole Polytechnique and the professors who taught there. To be taken seriously Sophie used a male pseudonym, ‘M. le Blanc’; using this pseudonym she exchanged letters with mathematicians (Singh par. 5). Two of these men discovered her identity, though both continued to collaborate with her. When Sophie discovered Karl Gauss’ work in number theory, the two began writing (Reimer and Reimer, 95). Her mathematical genius enabled her to understand Gauss’ work on a higher level than most. She...

...SophieGermainSophieGermain was a mathematician, who posed herself as a man because young women were not supposed to be taught math. SophieGermain was born in Paris, France on April 1, 1776 to Ambroise-Francios Germain and Marie-Madeleine Germain (Lewis). She had one older sister and one younger sister. SophieGermain full name is Marie-SophieGermain. She changed her name to Sophie because in her family her older sister and her mother both had Marie has their first name.
At the age of thirteen, she was home bound. She was not allowed to leave her house and go anywhere. Her parents kept her inside the house because of the turmoil of French Revolution (Lewis, White). She began to read stories that were in her father library. One of the stories that really intrigued Sophie was the death of Archimedes of Syracuse. The story read how Archimedes was studying a geometric figure in the sand, when a Roman soldier came by and started to ask him a few questions. And when failed to answer the question the Roman soldier asked him, the soldier killed him (White). She was so intrigued by the thought of a man so wrapped up into studying a math symbol that he lost his life doing so. So she decided that if it can capture a person like that, then she would too study it as...

...SophieGermain
Female of French Revolution
Marie-SophieGermain was born on April 1, 1776 and passed away on June 27, 1831. She was an important French mathematician, and a brilliant woman who lived during the French Revolution. Germain was born to a middle-class merchant family in Paris, France, and began studying mathematics at age thirteen, despite her parents' strong attempts to dissuade her from engaging in a 'men's profession'. Several years later, she managed to get some lecture notes from several courses at a well known school, École Polytechnique, a school which did not admit women.
Germain was particularly interested in Joseph-Louis Lagrange's teachings and submitted papers and assignments under the pseudonym "Monsieur Le Blanc", a former student of Lagrange's. Lagrange was so impressed by the paper that he asked to meet Le Blanc, and Germain was forced to reveal her identity to him. Lagrange apparently considered her a talented mathematician and became her mentor.
While Napoleon was invading Prussia in 1806, she convinced some high ranking Generals to personally protect the great Mathematician, Carl Friedrich Gauss. He later found out what she had done for him, and accepted her as student.
In 1811 Germain entered the French Academy of Sciences' contest. After failing twice she finally won in 1816, thus...

...later mathematicians, especially Girolama Saccheri, tried to out do the work of Euclid but all eventually gave up when they realized that his theories were flawless due to his extensive proofs.
He even adventured into new branches of mathematics and science. First, he published his book, Optiks, which discussed perspective and how people view the world through their eyes. His influence in this realm, although overlooked by most, is extremely influential. He also studied catoptrics, or the mathematical functions of mirrors. He again applied deductive reasoning to understand the principles behind mirrors. He also became an important figure in the study of data, conics, and ratios through his work in arithmetic and geometry.
Euclid’s influence on modern mathematics and society are immeasurable. For students studying geometry worldwide, his influence is obvious. As the renowned Father of Geometry, Euclid created the foundation for the field in his Elements. He created a foundation which other mathematicians built off of for the next 2000 years. Without his work, the work of scientists and mathematicians, such as Ptolemy, Brahmagupta, Isaac Newton, Leonhard Euler, and Carl Friedrich Gauss, would not have been possible. Deductive reasoning strategies would also be much less common and popular. Therefore, geometry students would never have the opportunity to use proofs to come to conclusions about various geometric shapes...

...Died: Jan 12, 1665 (at age 60 or 61), in Castres, France
Nationality: French
Famous For: Fermat’s Last Theorem
Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665)
Fermat’s contributions to mathematics
Fermat mathematician made significant contributions to number theory, probability theory, analytic geometry and the early development of infinitesimal calculus. He ventured into the areas of mathematics which included pre-evolved calculus and trigonometry.
Fermat’s primary contribution to mathematics was in the field of number theory. C.G. Bachet’s translation of Diophantus of Alexandria inspired his interest in the Theory of Numbers. He introduced Fermat’s “Last Theorem,” which states that there is no solution in integers of the equation xn + yn = zn (xyz#0, n>2).Fermat contributed to the development of calculus through his work on the properties of curves. Sir Isaac Newton said that his invention of calculus was based on Fermat’s methods of tangents. Fermat’s work on calculus was an aid in developing the differential calculus.
John Napier (1550-1617)
Born: 1550 in Merchiston Tower, Edinburgh
Died: April 4, 1617 (at age 66 or 67) in Edinburgh
Nationality: Scottish
Famous For: Discovering logarithms
Napier’s contributions to mathematics
John Napier was a Scottish mathematician who found lasting fame as the inventor of logarithms. He also invented at least one war weapon. His position as a member of the Scottish nobility allowed him to more...

...The Secrets We Keep
“We all have secrets; we live and breathe them every day. We may not know what one another's secrets are, but we know they're there.” This quote is from the famous author Gail Saltz, M.D of the book Anatomy of a Secret Life: The Psychology of Living a Lie. Everyone is known to have a private side, which they may reveal to few, if any. According to Merriam Dictionary a secret is defined as “something that is kept hidden or concealed.” On the other hand, the Merriam Dictionary states a secret is “something kept from the knowledge of others or shared only confidentially with a few.” Both definitions state that secrets are supposed to be hidden or concealed, meaning nobody should know anything about the secret. The Merriam Dictionary defines secrets to be shared by a few, because it’s human nature to tell the ones we are close to the exciting moments that are happening in our lives. It’s no secret that all of us have secrets, so why do we keep secrets? It’s in our society to keep secrets from others; we like to hide or conceal those little details from others, because we've deemed them irrelevant.
I don’t know where the start of secrets formed but it seems like people have kept secrets since the beginning of time. In Biblical times Adam...

...Essay- Draft # 1
The Secret in the Texts
We all have our secrets- secrets we wish to keep to ourselves and no one else. Sometimes, these secrets are motivated by dark thoughts and hatreds for others. The hatred grows and festers until it swallows us, making it almost impossible to return to our natural normal state. The same idea goes for pain. What is pain really? Sometimes pain is extreme that we get used to it. The feeling of pain grows and dominates our bodies that we cannot imagine our bodies without pain. At that point, you cannot tell the difference because you are unsure if you are really feeling pain. These two examples have a common underlying theme- Losing control over our own souls and ideas as a result of something dominating our lives. In the essays, “Our Secrets” and “The Pain Scale”, both Susan Griffin and Eula Bliss use hybrids of memoirs, stories and examples to illustrate the dominance of secrets and pain in ways that they affect us. However, this theme doesn’t only apply to our secrets and pains, but the way in which our education system works and the expectations that society limits us with.
Childhood memories are an essential component where most things are learned and practiced. In Griffin’s essay, Heinrich Himmler, a violent cruel leader, grew up to command Nazi rocketry and became the key architect of Jewish genocide....

... Successful communication requires that the parties listen actively and carefully--asking questions and confirming interpretations to make sure they understand what the other person is meaning. People seldom work this hard at listening, however. Often in conflictual situations, they hardly listen at all Rather, while their opponent is talking, they are busy planning their own response. This frequently leads to misunderstandings.
Secrecy and Deception
Sometimes information which is critical to the accurate understanding of a situation is not available to all parties. This frequently occurs in business conflicts, when companies try to keep details about products and processes secret. It also occurs in international conflicts when governments keep secrets for "security" reasons. This can happen in interpersonal conflicts as well when people simply choose to keep particular facts to themselves.
Poor communication also can arise when a party attempts to strengthen its position by deliberately providing opponents and other parties with misleading or inaccurate information.
Inflammatory Statements
Sometimes communication can make matters worse rather than better. When communication is threatening, hostile, or inflammatory it can do more to escalate a conflict than it can to defuse it.
Inflammatory Media
Negative and inflammatory publicity is a problem in conflicts--before, during, and after...

...magically attract experiences that bring you joy and fulfillment.
Never before has the Law of Attraction been explained so thoroughly, concisely, and beautifully as in "The Secret." The Law of Attraction states that like attracts like; your thoughts and feelings attract corresponding experiences.
For me, "The Secret" accomplishes three objectives: 1) it deepens my understanding of the Law of Attraction and provides numerous examples of how to apply it, 2) the uplifting presentation engenders a positive attitude, and 3) it helps me remember to use my power more often.
Immediately it began, I realized it was that recently that was obviously about the Law of Attraction, I know that new idea comes over to my mind makes me more wonder and synchronize my idea on the explaination.
The reality is that this film offers by far the best description of the Law of Attraction I've ever heard, and it makes the principles crystal clear and evident.
The film quotes Einstein: "Imagination is everything; it is the preview of life's forthcoming attractions." As usual he's spot on.
On trans4mind the applications of the Law of Attraction are well described in the sites of Ayal Hurst and Jeanne Hatch.
These are a reader's criticisms of the "Law of Attraction" discussed in our review last week of the film, "The Secret"... A fundamental problem: like does not attract like! Basic laws of physics are that 'opposites attract' - you put...