Something Out of Nothing

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Dissociative Disorders
We all get lost in a good book or movie. But someone with dissociative disorder escapes reality in ways that are involuntary and unhealthy. The symptoms of dissociative disorders — ranging from amnesia to alternate identities — usually develop as a reaction to trauma and help keep difficult memories at bay. Treatment for dissociative disorders may include psychotherapy, hypnosis and medication. Although treating dissociative disorders can be difficult, many people with dissociative disorders are able to learn new ways of coping and lead healthy, productive lives. AMNESIA

* Loss of memory
* Inability to recall information that is stored in memory * Inability to memorize data
* Causes may be organic or functional*
*Causes
- Organic causes may include brain damage through injury, or the use of specific drugs - usually sedative drugs.  - Functional causes are psychological factors, such as defense mechanisms.  Possible Causes of Amnesia

NEUROLOGICAL or Organic Amnesia
* Stroke
* Encephalitis (brain inflammation)
* Celiac Disease (confusion and personality changes)
* Oxygen deprivation (any illness that undermines the supply of oxygen to the brain; e.g. heart attack) * Some medications (such as the sleeping drug, ambien)
* Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (bleeding between the skull and the brain) * A brain tumor that lies in the memory-controlling part of the brain * ECT (electroshock therapy)
* Head injuries - such as those that occur in car accidents, can lead to memory problems. In most cases the amnesia is not severe and is not long-lasting. * PSYCHOGENIC or Functional Amnesia

- Also known as dissociative amnesia. This is caused by an emotional shock, such as: * Being the victim of a violent crime
* Sexual abuse
* Child abuse
* Being involved in combat (e.g. soldiers)
* Being involved in natural disasters
* Being present during a terrorist act
Types of Amnesia
* Anterograde Amnesia
* The patient cannot remember new information
* Usually caused by brain trauma
* The patient can still remember data and events that happened before the injury * Retrograde amnesia
* Often thought of as the opposite of anterograde amnesia. The patient cannot remember events that occurred before his/her trauma, but remembers things that happened after it normally.
* Transient global amnesia
- A temporary loss of all memory
* The patient finds it very hard to form new memories
* He/she has severe anterograde amnesia
* The loss of past memories is milder
* This is a very rare form of amnesia
* Traumatic amnesia 
- Memory loss caused by a hard blow to the head
- Patients may experience a brief loss of consciousness, or even go into a  coma -In the majority of cases the amnesia is temporary - How long it lasts usually depends on how severe the injury is * Transient global amnesia

- A temporary loss of all memory
* The patient finds it very hard to form new memories
* He/she has severe anterograde amnesia
* The loss of past memories is milder
* This is a very rare form of amnesia
* Traumatic amnesia 
* Memory loss caused by a hard blow to the head
- Patients may experience a brief loss of consciousness, or even go into a  coma * In the majority of cases the amnesia is temporary
- How long it lasts usually depends on how severe the injury is * Posthypnotic amnesia - events during hypnosis cannot be recalled. * Source amnesia - the person can remember certain information, but does not know how or where they got that information. * Blackout phenomenon - amnesia caused by a bout of heavy drinking. The person cannot remember chunks of time during his/her binge. * Prosopamnesia - the person cannot remember faces. People can either acquire prosopamnesia, or be born...
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