THE PROBLEM AND ITS SCOPE
Background of the Study
Describes the prevailing problem situation at the global, national and local levels (broad perspectives to narrow perspectives). Explains what the study is all about. Should arouse the interest of the readers.
Statement of the Problem
The researcher has to identify the specific problem existing within the specific area of interest which his research will seek to address. The statement should provide the researcher with considerable direction in pursuing the study.
Purpose of the Study
This refers to the general aim for wanting to carry out the study. The purpose should not be a reproduction of the title, but should be a summary statement of the reason why the study is being proposed.
These are finer statements of what is to be accomplished, which emanate from the purpose of the study. They specify more directly what the researcher is going to do. While the purpose is a general statement of the aim of the study, the objectives must be specific. Should state properly and clearly the general and specific objectives that should jive with the research questions. Ideally, the research objectives should be measurable, attainable and feasible.
The research questions must be stated in question form and in a way that they are synchronized with the research objectives.
The research hypothesis is a tentative explanation of the research problem. It is also a tentative answer to the research problem and can be an educated guess about the research outcome. Not all researches need a hypothesis, therefore, if the study is hypothesis free, an ASSUMPTION may take its place. The hypothesis must be stated where it is applicable. Ideally, the hypothesis can be in null or alternative form.
This specifies the boundaries of the research. The geographical scope defines the location or site of the study. The theoretical scope defines the issues to be covered; the content scope defines the factors and variables to be considered.
Significance of the Study
This provides the justification of the study. It spells out who the probable beneficiaries of the study findings might be (country, government, local community, agency, curriculum developers, researchers etc.), and how they might benefit. It also shows how the research findings will contribute to general knowledge and what is its impact on development towards better life . It should reflect on knowledge creation, as well as on technological or socio-economic value to the community.
Operational Definitions of Key Terms
This gives the definitions of major terms as they are used in the study. Key terms are ideally found in the research title, research instrument and other parts of the study where the terms need to be operationally defined in this section.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
This gives a short introduction on the coverage of this chapter.
Concepts, Ideas, Opinions From Authors/ Experts
This section deals with the analysis of the literature related to the subject of the study with the objective of seeing the concepts, ideas and opinions of scholars/experts. The review must be focused on the study variables by reviewing literature under the sub-themes which synchronize with the research objectives or questions or hypothesis. It should show relationships identified by previous researchers. When the literature review is so structured it would be easy when discussing the researcher's findings to relate and compare these findings with previous findings in the reviewed literature. The review should identify the gaps existing in literature and specify the ones that the research will focus on. Proper citations/end noting must also be reflected.
This should discuss the theory to...