Solubility

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p.
 1
  Megan
 Ly
  Chemistry
 231L
  February
 20,
 2013
 
 

SOLUBILITY
 

  Purpose:
 To
 better
 comprehend
 solubility
 behavior
 by
 investigating
 the
 solubility
 of
 various
  substances
 in
 different
 solvents,
 looking
 at
 miscible
 and
 immiscible
 pairs
 of
 liquids,
 and
  observing
 the
 solubility
 of
 organic
 acids
 and
 bases.
 
  Reference:
 Pavia,
 A
 Small
 Scale
 Approach
 to
 Organic
 Laboratory
 Techniques
 pp.
 6-­‐9
 
  Report:
 
  Part
 A
 
  1) Results
 in
 table
 form
 
  Solvent:
  Solvent:
  Solvent:
  methanol
  Solid
 Organic
 Molecules
  water
 
  hexane
  (intermediate
  (highly
 polar)
  (nonpolar)
  polarity)
  Benzophenone
  Soluble
 after
  O Partially
  Completely
  20
 seconds
  soluble
 after
  soluble
 after
  without
  C 60
 seconds
  20
 seconds
  mixing
 
  Succinic
 Acid
  Insoluble
  O after
 60
  seconds;
  Insoluble
  Soluble
 after
  OH some
  after
 60
  20
 seconds
  dissolved,
  seconds
  OH pieces
 were
  smaller
  O
  Biphenyl
  Partially
  Partially
  soluble
 after
  Completely
  soluble
 after
 7
  60
 seconds;
 a
  dissolved
  seconds;
 solid
  litte
 more
  after
 41
  floats
 to
 the
  than
 50%
  seconds
 
  top
  dissolved
 
  2) Benzophenone
 is
 a
 nonpolar
 molecule
 and
 is
 soluble
 in
 nonpolar
 solvents,
 such
 as
  hexane.
 It
 does
 not
 have
 potential
 for
 hydrogen
 bonding,
 which
 is
 why
 it
 is
 insoluble
 


 

 

p.
 2
 

in
 highly
 polar
 solvents
 such
 as
 water.
 Succinic
 acid
 is
 semi-­‐polar
 which
 is
 why
 it
 is
  soluble
 in
 a
 solvent
 with
 intermediate
 polarity,
 like
 methyl
 alcohol,
 but
 is
 completely
  insoluble
 in
 nonpolar
 solvents
 such
 as
 hexane.
 Hydrogen
 bonding
 can
 occur
 with
  succinic
 acid
 with
 the
 polar
 ends
 (OH),
 which
 accounts
 for
 partial,
 though
 very
  slight,
 solubility
 in
 water.
 Biphenyl
 is
 nonpolar
 which
 accounts
 for
 its
 solubility
 in
  the
 nonpolar
 solvent,
 hexane,
 and
 its
 insolubility
 in
 polar
 substances.
  3) Benzophenone
 is
 more
 polar
 than
 biphenyl
 due
 to
 the
 carbonyl
 group
 between
 the
  two
 benzene
 rings.
 For
 this
 reason,
 benzophenone
 is
 soluble
 in
 the
 solvent
 with
  intermediate
 polarity
 (methanol)
 but
 biphenyl
 is
 not.
 
  4) There
 was
 no
 difference
 between
 the
 solubility
 of
 benzophenone
 in
 methyl
 alcohol
  and
 benzophenone
 in
 hexane.
 Benzophenone
 is
 semi-­‐polar
 (more
 nonpolar)
 and
 is
  more
 readily
 soluble
 in
 methanol
 because
 it
 is
 also
 semi-­‐polar.
 
  Part
 B
  1) Results
 in
 table
 form
  Alcohols
  1-­‐octanol
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