Solid Waste Management And Disposal in Dhankuta Municipality
Department of Civil Engineering
1 Background of landfill technology
Until recently, the concept of land filling was used to dump waste material for disposal. Therefore, not much care was taken about their construction. Placing the waste in the Earth’s upper crust was considered as the safest practice of waste disposal. But with rapid industrialization and urbanization, land filling has metamorphosed. As uncontrolled landfills have shown potential of polluting various parts of the environment and many accidents have also happened, regulations have been imposed on landfill location, site design and their preparation and maintenance. A certain degree of engineering was made mandatory for landfills. Landfill location was based on many factors and an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is mandatory for the siting of landfills. Land availability for longer dumping periods and availability of cover material are some of the important guiding parameters in LF site selection.
Due to these engineering inputs, landfills have been tightened up leaving much better environment in the .cells. for better waste decomposition. As a result of careful sealing of cells with daily cover, public nuisance could be reduced along with improved anaerobic conditions within the cell and the life of the landfill could be reduced.
Dhankuta is a small municipality located in the hills of eastern Nepal. It is the head quarters of Eastern Development Region. The municipality was established in the year 2035 BS. The Municipality is bordered by Bhirgaon VDC to the east, Belhara VDC to the west, Hattikharka VDC to the north and Tamor River to the south. The municipality has nine wards out of which, wards 1, 5, 6 & & are located in relatively urban settings, while the remaining wards are in rural areas. Hile a major market centre in the region is located in ward 1. The municipality is an administrative and commercial centre and has potential for tourism.
Table 1: Background Information
NAME | DHANKUTA MUNICIPALITY|
District | Dhankuta |
Year of Establishment | 2035 B.S. |
No. of Wards | 9 |
No. of Urban Wards | 5 |
No. of Rural and semi urban Wards | 4 |
Total Area | 48.21 sq. km|
Major Rivers and Ponds | NA |
Population (2001) | 20,668 |
Annual Population Growth Rate (1991-2001) | 1.9|
Estimated Population for 2010| 24484 |
The SWM project strives for maximum waste recovery through composting, recycling, and reuse, and aims at zero waste to be disposed onto landfills. The longterm objective is thus to reduce the environmental degradation caused by solid waste. By using composting methods to manage the biodegradable waste, we are able to: * Minimise waste that needs to be disposed in centralised landfills, thus extending existing landfill capacity;
* Reduce the environmental impact of disposal sites as the bio-degradable waste fraction largely is to blame for the polluting leachate and the methane problems; * Benefit the soil by using organic compost instead of chemical fertilisers. Furthermore, decentralised composting schemes as suggested in this proposal have advantages to centralised schemes, as they * Divert biodegradable waste from the municipal waste stream, thus reducing transportation costs and the environmental costs; * Enhance environmental awareness in the community;
* Create employment in the community;
* Ensures sustainability of the project at the local level; * Are more flexible options for SWM since they can adapt rapidly to changes in userneeds; * Are close to the residents, allowing close quality surveillance of the waste processingservices and products; * Are mostly small-scale, based on labour-intensive technology, and better adaptedto the local socio-economic situation;...