• Waste management technologies: recycling, composting, incinerating, land filling (considering controlled disposal of waste land and toxic or hazardous sites);
• health outcomes: cancers (stomach, colorectal, liver, larynx and lung cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, kidney and bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, childhood cancer), birth outcomes (congenital malformations, low birth weight, multiple births, abnormal sex ratio of newborns), respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal symptoms or diseases.
Studies of communities near landfills
One of the main problems in dealing with studies on landfill sites is the distinction between sites for municipal solid wastes and sites for other wastes. The definition of different types of waste is far from being standardized across the world. The terms hazardous, special, toxic, industrial, and commercial, etc, are variously applied in different countries and time periods to designate non-household wastes. In earlier time periods definitions were even less clear and some disposal sites may have switched categories (e.g. if they used to take industrial waste they may now only take municipal waste). Since two systematic reviews were already available for toxic wastes [4,11], we did not replicate the literature search, but summarized the evidence reported in the available reviews and tried to compare and discuss the results with studies where mainly municipal solid wastes were land filled. The additional file contain several details of the studies reviewed.
solid waste discarded materials other than fluids. in addition enormous tonnages of food residues, yard trimmings, textiles, plastics, and sludge formed in sewage treatment were produced. Although the amount of the increase has been slowed somewhat by recycling and composting programs and improvements in packaging, the amount of solid waste continues to increase annually. Moreover, the most common disposal methods... [continues]
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