Solar Energy

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Solar energy

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Solar energy
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar energy technologies include solar heating, solar photovoltaics, solar thermal electricity, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis, which can make considerable contributions to solving some of the most urgent energy problems the world now faces.[][1] Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert The 19.9 MW Gemasolar solar plant in Spain features 15 hours of storage and can supply power 24 hours a day. and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable, inexhaustible and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits. It will increase countries’ energy security through reliance on an indigenous, inexhaustible and mostly import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating climate change, and keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; they must be wisely spent and need to be widely shared".[]

Energy from the Sun
The Earth receives 174 petawatts (PW) of incoming solar radiation (insolation) at the upper atmosphere.[2] Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet.[3] Earth's land surface, oceans and atmosphere absorb solar radiation, and this raises their temperature. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection. About half the incoming solar energy reaches the Earth's surface. When the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind, cyclones and anti-cyclones.[4] Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C.[5] By photosynthesis green plants convert solar energy into chemical energy, which produces food, wood and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived.[6]

Solar energy

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Yearly Solar fluxes & Human Energy Consumption Solar Wind Biomass potential Primary energy use (2009) Electricity (2009) 3,850,000 EJ 2,250 EJ [8] [7]

[] 100–300 EJ 510 EJ [9] [10]

62.5 EJ

The total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, oceans and land masses is approximately 3,850,000 exajoules (EJ) per year.[7] In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year.[11][12] Photosynthesis captures approximately 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.[] The technical potential available from biomass is from 100–300 EJ/year.[] The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will ever be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, oil, natural gas, and mined uranium combined,[13] Solar energy can be harnessed at different levels around the world, mostly depending on distance from the equator.[14]

Applications of solar technology
Solar energy refers primarily to the use of solar radiation for practical ends. However, all renewable...
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