Soil Exploration

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Foundation Engineering
Soil exploration obtains information about the subsurface parameters and conditions at the proposed Soil exploration as part of site investigation. In general, it deals with determining the suitability of the site for proposed construction. This consists of determining the profile of the soil deposits at and near the site. It mainly consists of taking the soil samples and checking the engineering properties of the soil and testing it in Situ. It then gets to be used as a construction and supporting material for the foundation to carry its weight.

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The function of a well laid foundation is to support the loads resting on it without exerting excessive stress on the soil masses beneath it. Stress is considered excessive if a person witnesses complete rupture of the soil mass or when results of soil exploration obtain information about the subsurface parameters and conditions as part of site investigation. In general, it deals with determining the suitability of the site for the proposed construction. This consists of determining the profile of the soil deposits at and near the site. It mainly consists of taking the soil samples and checking the engineering properties of the soil while testing it in Situ as stated earlier. Therefore, this becomes apparent that one of the most vital things and steps to consider in the solution of foundation problems is determining the underground conditions of the soil that would affect the design. Field and lab investigations are required to obtain the necessary information about hydrology, geology, and soil conditions. This means verifying the Geotechnology properties of the soil before any construction can take place and the performance of various soil types encountered when acted upon by a structural weight, temperature, and water. They should consist of sub-surface investigation or better known as soil exploration methods. Soil exploration programs get affected by a number of factors including the general look of the soil around the work area, size of the project, time available for complete exploration, and the degree of risk and safety. Tall buildings and heavy industrial structures built over fairly homogeneous clay require an extensive exploration program. An erratic soil mass has a non uniform soil strata, consistence in elevation properties, thickness, and extent. In this case of erratic structure, it becomes exceedingly difficult to determine the full picture of the subsurface as this require a lot of boring and tests. In such cases, only the location and the extent of the weaker lenses, strata, and the property of the weak soil get determined. The degree of safety and risk involved will be another factor that will govern the tough roughness and the extent of the soil survey. To a lesser degree, a dam which would take a lot of lives and course virtually irreparable damage if it collapsed would be a tall building. The soil condition of these mammoth structures must be thoroughly investigated. It must however be warranted before the design and construction of any structure no matter how minor the construction would be. Accurate and adequate sub-surface data must be collected to enable the architects and engineers to design the foundation economically and safe at the same time. Saving of money and time will offer more than offset on the general cost of exploration as illustrated below. [pic]

There are different classes in the sub surface exploration.
a) Foundation investigation meant to investigate the sites for new structures. b) Stability and failure investigations to identify the causes of failure or distress c) Earthwork investigation to test the suitability of natural minerals for construction processes. The procedure of exploration

This procedure can be classified into the following processes. 1) Reconnaissance
ii) Data collection.
iii) Geologic study.
iv) Site inspection...
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