3. Process of laddering
Laddering can be conducted in different
directions: downward to seek explanation and
upwards to elicit goals and values, or sideways
to provide further examples at the same level.
I decided to concentrate on single direction
upward laddering. The average interview took
about 45 minutes during which I took
handwritten notes, rather than tape recording
in the majority of cases. Although the research
of Reynolds and Gutman (1998) tended to elicit
short responses (in this case perhaps because
the focus was on identity meaning and values),
the responses were wordy; so whenever it was
possible to record the responses, it was helpful
to be able to listen to them after the interview
to search for meaning and explanation.
Data-collection procedures and
Means-end theory was designed to explain the
relationship between goods and consumers.
In this case, it was used to explain the
relationship between physical artefacts in the
organisational built environment and the
organisational actors. In the original deﬁ nition
a good is deﬁ ned by a series of attributes which
yield consequences when the good is used.
The importance of these consequences is based
on their ability to satisfy personally motivating
values and goals of people. So in means-end
theory, the relationship between attributes and
values is also indirect but the consequences can
be quite broad. It can encompass everyday
activities but also consequences that are more
functional or psychosocial in nature. In addition, means-end is more ‘bottom up’ in its approach in the sense that the meaning
an artefact has for the individual is investigated...